The Origins & Meaning of the words ‘Negro/Nigger’

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Cartoon image titled “Why the nigger is not fit to vote,” by Thomas Nast, arguing that the reason Democrats objected to African-Americans having the vote, was that in the 1868 US presidential election African-Americans voted for the Republican candidates Ulysses S. Grant and Schuyler Colfax. “Seymour friends meet here” in the background is a reference to the Democratic Party candidate: Horatio Seymour.

The term nigger, said to be derived through negro, necro from the proto-indo-european root nekwt or nek referencing ‘dead, dark, night’ etc.,

actually has its origins in the terms Neq, Neqr, Neqau, Nek and related terms in Kamit (Egypt):

The Caucasians trace the terms necro, negro, night to the roots ‘nekwt’ and ‘nek’ yet are unsure of their etymological origins. This is because they have stolen terms which have no roots in their culture and then relabeled them as ‘proto-indoeuropean’.

The root of these terms can be found in Khanit and Kamit, predating the existence of europeans upon Asaase (Earth). The association of negro, necro, night, negative (neg- meaning not, no, lack) with nekwt and nek is rooted in the terms:

neqan to be lacking, wanting (not having)

nega lack, want

neqn injury, affliction

neqaut foes crushed or beaten to death

nek to smite, to attack, to injure, outrage, crime, and murder.

These terms are related to the dead body, corpse, death, the treatment of the body in a negative fashion, etc.

The related terms neqr, nuqr referencing sifting; dust, powder, what is sifted, etc. are related to that which is crushed, beaten, pounded. This is what happens in a negative sense to the body, corpse of a foe in Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (African) culture.

In a positive sense we do not crush, pound or cremate the body of the deceased. We engage the embalming and mummification process to preserve the body as an Ancestral shrine of the departed Ancestress or Ancestor. It is only in the negative sense that the body is treated otherwise, hence the related terms neqem and neqeb referencing mourning, afflicted, grieving and Neqaiu hatu – the fiends who tear up hearts in the spirit realm after the person died.

The loss of the heart was a grievous possibility in the spirit-realm, rendering the deceased spirit vulnerable to the attacks of other negative discarnate entities. This is why there are numerous chapters in the Ru Nu Pert em Hru (Book of Coming Forth by Day) wherein the individual invokes the Ntorou/Ntorotu (Deities) to not allow his or her heart to be taken away from him or her or destroyed/torn up.

However, in the culture of the whites and their offspring, cremation was/is a central feature of their funerary practices. The destruction of the body was not a descration to them, but a common practice. Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut (Africans) always preserved the bodies of our deceased in sacred ceremonies, that they may become the most potent Ancestral shrines of the departed Honorable Ancestor or Ancestress for family members to communicate with at sacred burial sites during Ancestral observances. Since the whites and their offspring have no honorable ancestresses and ancestors, there was no ritual pracitce of preserving the melanin recessive, perverse bodies of their deceased. They only began practicing embalming, mummification and elaborate burial practices after observing and imitating Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut (Africans).

Yet, because the whites and their offspring observed the sanctity of preserving the body, burial and Ancestral Communication amongst Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut (Africans) they always sought to desecrate the bodies of our deceased whenever they could during warfare, invasions, etc. They would also eventually use terms to identify us with the dead, negative, afflicted, crushed, etc. in a pejorative sense. This is the origin of the roots of terms such as neqaut being used in later european dialects to refer to Black people in general. Black used in the sense of negative, not, lacking light (therefore dark, black, gloomy), lacking life (dead), etc. [night, negro, necro, neg, naught, etc.] The neqau became the nekwt, nekus, nekros, necro, nigrum, niger, negre, negro, negroes, nigras, niggers, niggas, etc:

nigger (n.) Look up nigger at Dictionary.com1786, earlier neger (1568, Scottish and northern England dialect), from French nègre, from Spanish negro (see Negro).

 

Note: I would like to add that the word “Negro” is a derogatory term to call oneself, if you’re a person of African descent. Because when a Black person call themselves a ‘Negro’ you basically are saying you’re someone who’s ‘dead mentally,’ because the word ‘Negro’ is synonymous with and derives from the words ‘Nekros/Necro’ meaning ‘dead/death, dead body, or corpse.’ Basically being call a ‘Negro’ sums up having a negative mentality of oneself and other Black people or thinking in a negative way that does not benefit oneself in a positive way or Black people in general i.e. Self-hatred (Self-hating). However yet there are many Black people, who have Negro Mentalities though unfortunately due to our social conditioning overtime by the Oppressors/enslavers (Non-Afrikans). Yet that shouldn’t be use as an excuse, because it’s not impossible for one to break the “Negro” mentality, due to commitment, perseverance and most importantly self-love and one’s love of their people and culture.

 

Etymological Definitions

Negro (n.) Look up Negro at Dictionary.com“member of a black-skinned race of Africa,” 1550s, from Spanish or Portuguese negro “black,” from Latin nigrum (nominative niger) “black, dark, sable, dusky,” figuratively “gloomy, unlucky, bad, wicked,” of unknown origin (perhaps from PIE *nekw-t- “night;” see Watkins). As an adjective from 1590s. Use with a capital N- became general early 20c. (e.g. 1930 in “New York Times” stylebook) in reference to U.S. citizens of African descent, but because of its perceived association with white-imposed attitudes and roles the word was ousted late 1960s in this sense by Black (q.v.).

Meaning “English language as spoken by U.S. blacks” is from 1704. French nègre is a 16c. borrowing from Spanish negro.

necro- Look up necro- at Dictionary.combefore vowels, necr-, word-forming element meaning “death, corpse, dead tissue,” from comb. form of Greek nekros “dead body, corpse, dead person,” from PIE *nek- (1) “death, natural death” (cognates: Sanskrit nasyati “disappears, perishes,” Avestan nasyeiti “disappears,” nasu- “corpse,” Old Persian vi-nathayatiy “he injures;” Latin nex, genitive necis “violent death, murder” (as opposed to mors), nocere “to harm, hurt,” noxius “harmful;” Greek nekus “dead” (adj.), nekros “dead body, corpse;” Old Irish ec, Breton ankou, Welsh angeu “death”).

night (n.) Look up night at Dictionary.comOld English niht (West Saxon neaht, Anglian næht, neht) “night, darkness;” the vowel indicating that the modern word derives from oblique cases (genitive nihte, dative niht), from Proto-Germanic *nakht- (cognates: Old Saxon and Old High German naht, Old Frisian and Dutch nacht, German Nacht, Old Norse natt, Gothic nahts).

The Germanic words are from PIE *nekwt- “night” (cognates: Greek nuks “a night,” Latin nox, Old Irish nochd, Sanskrit naktam “at night,” Lithuanian naktis “night,” Old Church Slavonic nosti, Russian noch’, Welsh henoid “tonight”), according to Watkins, probably from a verbal root *neg- “to be dark, be night.”

deny (v.) Look up deny at Dictionary.comearly 14c., from Old French denoiir “deny, repudiate, withhold,” from Latin denegare “to deny, reject, refuse” (source of Italian dinegarre, Spanish denegar), from de- “away” (see de-) + negare “refuse, say ‘no,’ ” from Old Latin nec “not,” from Italic base *nek- “not,” from PIE root *ne- “no, not” (see un-). Related: Denied; denying.

Note: Khanit and Kamit means (Nubia and Egypt)

https://youtu.be/RQaEGCbtb2o (ANIDAHO: Analysis of our Book – Origin of the term ‘God’: ‘nigga/naga/negus’ is Not ‘God’)

https://youtu.be/aOym-ArbCI8 (NEHESU-NEGUS-NKOSO – Negus is Not ‘nigga’)

http://www.odwirafo.com/Anidaho-Awareness.pdf(ANIDAHO ~NOTE ON THE TERM NGG WR OR NGNG WR IN KAMIT NGG UR IS NOT ‘NIGGER’ PART 1), pages 8 & 10.

http://www.odwirafo.com/Anidaho-Awareness.pdf ( THE ORIGIN OF THE TERM ‘GOD’ NOTE ON THE TERM NGG WR OR NGNG WR IN KAMIT NGG UR IS NOT ‘NIGGA’ – PART 2), pages 23, 25 & 26.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigger

http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e0-fba3-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99 (Why “The nigger is not fit to vote.”)

 

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Understanding Religiosity in the African Diaspora: How Orisha Worship Survived in Brazil

Candomblé in Salvador da Bahía

A Brazilian woman, practising candomblé (the Afro-Brazilian animistic religion), in the historical part of Salvador da Bahía, Brazil, March 6, 2004.

 

Some excerpts taken from the article:

 Understanding Religiosity in the African Diaspora: How Orisha Worship Survived in Brazil

 

“While the Portuguese enslaved several Africans, according to Sheila Walker, a scholar on    Afro-Brazilian culture and religion, it was the Yoruba people “from present-day Nigeria and Benin…whose religious culture has remained most intact and influential in both Brazil and elsewhere in the Americas.” It is from the Yoruba culture, in which the divination system of Ifá originates and Afro-Brazilian religion Candomblé is derived.”

Nestled on the northeastern coast of Brazil, the city of Salvador, the capital of Bahia, can be described as the mecca of Candomblé. While Bahia comprises the second largest Black populous in the world, falling short to only the African continent (specifically, Nigeria) itself, the Yoruba religion, Ifá arrived to the shores of Bahia and integrated itself into Afro-Brazilian society and would later catalyze into the religion, Candomble.

From 1530, when the first Portuguese colonialists arrived in Bahia to 1888 — sixty-six years after Brazilian independence from Portugal and one year prior to the country becoming a republic — the importation and exploitation of Africans thrived; leaving the Portuguese with the legacy of producing the largest slave economy in the world. While the Portuguese enslaved several Africans, according to Sheila Walker, a scholar on Afro-Brazilian culture and religion, it was the Yoruba people “from present-day Nigeria and Benin…whose religious culture has remained most intact and influential in both Brazil and elsewhere in the Americas.” It is from the Yoruba culture, in which the divination system of Ifá originates and Afro-Brazilian religion Candomblé is derived.

In the Yoruba context, Ifá is regarded as an integral and essential a part of Yoruba history, mythology, religion and folk medicine. Intrinsic to Ifá are the divinities known as Orishas, which are manifestations of the high god, Olodumdare or Olòrún. Having their own unique characteristics, distinct chants, colors (which are known as ileke), numbers, foods and even literature, the Orisha have full autonomy and authority over the forces of nature as well as the power of working for or against humanity. The Orisha pantheon is seemingly limitless, as hundreds of entities comprise the pagoda include Èṣù (god of chaos and trickery); Orunmila (god of wisdom, knowledge and divination); Osun (the goddess of love, beauty and intimacy); Obatalá (creator of god of human bodies as well as owner of ori or heads) footnote; Ogun (god of hunting, iron and war); Sango (god of thunder, fire and lightening); Oya (goddess of wind and magic); Yemoja (goddess of the ocean and motherhood), and Osan-in (god of herbs, leaves and medicine).

Just like many other religions, Ifá has its own unique story of creation–where Obatala molded human beings with clay supplied by Ogun, the Orisha of iron. According to Dr. Wande Abimola, author of “Ifá Will Mend Our Broken World” and the foremost scholar on Ifá, the high god, Olodumdare provided the vital breath force and heart known as Emi and Ajala, another potter of heaven, provided the inner or spiritual head. Ile-Ife, the ancestral home and city of the Orishas, is also the cradle of humanity. Prior to the creation of Ile-Ife, the earth was submerged with water and the Orisha descended from Oke ara — a mountain in the vicinity of Ile-Ife from whence the divinities descended after the creation of the Earth — to create dry land from water. With only a parcel of dust combined with a chicken and chameleon, dry land began to appear as a chicken scratched and spread solid earth in various directions.

Dubbed as the “African Rome”, Candomblé in Salvador da Bahia in Brazil is seen and valued as an intrinsic force of cultural and societal values as the African spirit permeates an officially Catholic city of more than two million people. Whether it be in the fifteen-hundred plus Candomblé temples or terreriros; the presence of the maes e pais de santo (priestess and priests of Candomblé) or in the acaraje, “a black -eyed pea fritter cooked in red palm oil”, a delicacy of some Orishas served by Afro-Brazilian women known as baianas, Ifá has reconstructed itself in an Afro-Brazilian cultural and societal context.

Prior to the religious freedom and “respectability” the faith has accrued today, Candomblé was viewed as an inferior and barbaric religion. Under the Portuguese colonial regime during the 19th century–as typical of European imperialism–enslaved Africans were forced to a policy of assimilation or rather cooptation; as the Portuguese vehemently denied the right for Africans to exercise their religious system but enforced their own.

Though the Portuguese imposed their Catholicism, Ifá thrived as its indigenous core values syncretized with the inflicted Christian ones due to the heavy populous of Yoruba peoples in Brazil. Within this new religious dynamic, Ifá in Brazil was cultivated as the Orishas –unbeknown to the Portuguese–were canonized and edified by way of the pantheon of the Catholic saints. Although syncretism was an essential form of preservation to sustain African religiosity in Bahia, an important element to note is that Ifá — as a Yoruba tradition — was exercised in Catholicism as a mechanism to culturally and religiously survive and used not so much to adopt the Christian faith but to adapt. The Christian saints were merely symbolic vessels for the Orishas that were appropriated to comply to the religious imperialism of the Portuguese.

According to Sheila Walker, a scholar on Afro-Brazilian culture and religion, “Africans could adapted so well to outwardly observing the feast day of the saints as they were acquire to do so because they could perceive the spiritual beings they were honoring not as European saints, but symbols of the people who were oppressing them, but also as representations of the Orisha whom the saints most closely resembled.”

The Ifá tradition in Brazil not only infiltrated itself by way of syncretism but also through means of commercial trade. Several freed black Bahians participated in trade with Africa and many of the products that were imported from the Gulf of Benin were materials used in Candomblé such as red feathers, dyes and fabric. According to Patricia de Santana Pinho, author of “Mama Africa: Reinventing Blackness in Bahia”, within these materials included secret religious directives and information which connected Brazil and Africa despite the Transatlantic divide. Not only were intercontinental messages sent between Bahia and Africa, many devotees of the Ifá tradition in Africa traveled to Bahia to reclaim the religious practices that vanished from the continent yet were protected and conserved in Candomblé temples.

Many believers of Candomblé, though possessing a duality of faith in both Catholicism and Candomblé practice the faiths respectively, essentially what is practiced in Bahia is Ifá itself; as the practices of Christianity were not so much as influential to Ifá as Ifá was to Brazilian Catholicism. Despite the fact that many devotees are now equipped to end the hybridized notion of Orisha and sainthood, there is a duality that remains among the new generation of Afro-Brazilians who practice Candomblé, who recognize their faith as an indigenous African religious entity but still use overt Brazilian Catholic symbols in Orisha worship.

Though images of the European saints still stand in Candomblé houses, portraying Orishas who are not visually portrayed and many Candomblé priests and priestesses have been baptized Catholics, Walker describes these “two spiritual realities” in Bahia as non-contradictory and even complementary as it ultimately represents and eternalizes African Orisha worship.

Even in the midst of oppression, colonialism, and racism, Ifá, as form of African religiosity, was able to survive within a Pan-Africanist paradigm in the African Diaspora, despite Portuguese slaveocracy and imperialistic methodologies to thwart the religion. Though Candomblé in Bahia represents what Pinho calls a “scale of Africanism”, these “Africanisms” are African nonetheless; as they represent and perpetuate the intrinsic power and force that prolific political scientist Ronald Walters described, which “drives African-origin people to continue identifying with the source of their cultural origin.”

 

Some excerpts from article:  

Olorun & Olokun | Eledamare & Esumare – The etymology of the Supreme Being and Creative force in Yoruba Nanasom

Monotheism had made a significant contribution to Yoruba Ancestral Practice via the enslavement era, War, Conflict, Missionaries and Colonization in gentrified areas which causes an appendance of maladaptive western theology to Nanasom. Thus spawning a generation of inaccurate names, functions, cosmologies and descriptive titles for the Orisa. Monotheism is a multi facet tool for social, domestic and political instability.

From etymological resources and minor episodes of Orisa possession. The following is an attempt to properly identify whom the Supreme Being and Supreme Creative force in Yoruba Nanasom.

Olorun is often listed a descriptive title of the Orisa Olodumare, with the inference they are one Orisa. Thus used frequently in cosmological literature. This is assumption is partly inaccurate and potentially misleading. Olodumare is defined as “The Almighty God, the self existent being, and  God”. Olodumare has been attempted to be defined by the sum of its parts Olodu-Ikoko-ti-enikan-ko-le-re=owner of giant shrine pot no one can surpass. The etymology is questionable.

Akin to Amen Ra which is the accumulation of the Great Father Ntroru; Amen and the Great Creative Male Force; Ra. However the Ntroru have two separate distinct functions in creation and are not to be misconstrued as one single conglomerate entity solely responsible for the totality of creation. The name Olodumare is a contracted form of the name of two separate Orisa, Olorun & Edumare. Edumare is a contracted form of Eledumare.

An alleged title of the Olodumare is Onipin. However this descriptive title further renders monotheism illegitimate. Onipin means to share to divide, distribute, pair, half, The distributor of ones lot’s; The Supreme Being, a sharer or partaker. A inference is if a source is sharing in composition of creation, it is of two polarities.

Olorun

Olo is inferred as “to possess to have to hold to own, to master, the bearer and the Alligator/Crocodile. Orun is defined “bow, neck, one hundred, invisible world, heaven, sky, regions above, Firmament, to sleep, to rest, the sun the day star, the region above”. Olorun is defined as the Sleeper. Thus meaning Olorun is the owner, the master of the invisible world, the master of the heavens, the owner of the bow. Looking at a bow holds a similar view of the firmament.

By stating that Olorun is the sleeper or Orun meaning to sleep, to rest. One can safely infer that the Olorun is the owner of the hidden realms, similar to the one we enter during sleep. Olorun is owner of the totality of the hidden realm, where one will communicate with Egungun, Orisa, or discarnate sprits. In Kamit the Ntroru Amen is the Great Father. The etymology of Amen is congruent and consistent with that of Olorun.

Amen is defined as “the grandfather of the Khemenu, the hidden god in heaven. To hide, conceal, hidden, secret, mysterious means to make firm, establish, to fortify, to make to arrive, the right side, western, the west land the right hand the right side, a bull god”.

The owner of the high shrine, high sanctuary. The Master of the Land not assessable to the public, The Rulerer of the hidden, secret mysterious land.

Olokun

Olokun is defined as follows. Olo means the owner, the master, to possess, to hold. Okun Strength, Ability, Power, rope, cord, string, pant, twine fiber, darkness, sea, salt water. Olokun in my assumption is incorrectly representative in contemporary Yoruba Cosmology. Monotheism is an asinine assumption in contemporary culture.

In Yoruba we capture the sentient of duality in the term Ejiwapo which means twoness that manifest through out creation. Spirit/Matter, Male/female, visible/invisible, day/night, hot/cold, wet/dry. The term Khera is designated for Amenet the wife of Amen. Amenet Neferet-First division of the Tuat, a goddess who hid the decease. It critical to understand that the inference the is a duality/relationship/marriage of Olorun & Olokun and confirmed in Kamit. Khera means to intertwine, to tie up mother of the calf consistent with Olokun. Olokun is also defined as  the rope maker. Terms determines the rope, cord, rope maker, to intertwine, to tie up.

Olokun contrary to contemporary literature is not a male Orisa nor was produce from Yemaja. Yemajarespectfully does not have the capacity to produce Olokun. Yemaja is from the two words Yeye= mother eja= fish. Thus meaning the mother of the fishes. The Orisa of brooks and stream. To reiteratethat Olokun is the owner of the all the water. Elusu is also a descriptive title for Olokun. Elu=The Mixture, indigo and Su= meaning to make into balls, to gather in great multitude, to gather blackness as rainy clouds and darken.

 Olokun is the mother of the physical world, the mother of strength, the mother, the master of ability. the mother of Aje which twines, rotates, spins, spirit into matter, thus the mother of living things.

 Although one finds it as true, in very limited sources is Olokun called by a esteem descriptive title Iya Agbe. Iya Agbe is often a tile given to Oodua meaning the mother of the calabash, the closed calabash. Consider that Olorun & Olokun are the owners of Igba Iwa. Obatala had a heavy load as he broght the Igba Iwa on his head. Eledamare instructed Obatala to take the Igba Iwa down with him to mend situations that needed it. Igba Iwa to be extreamly brief is the sum of character. Obatala & Oodua are the vessels, the shrine, the medium, the throne in which Igba Iwa and brings it knowledge down to Aye Akamara (physical existence).

http://www.apesperausarra.com/#!Olorun-Olokun-Eledamare-Esumare-The-etymology-of-the-Supreme-Being-and-Creative-force-in-Yoruba-Nanasom/c1413/568208a20cf236d40391364b (November 5, 2015)

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jaimee-a-swift/understanding-religiosity_b_9381004.html (Understanding Religiosity in the African Diaspora: How Orisha Worship Survived in Brazil, by Jaimee A. Swift Mar. 04, 2016)

https://nacla.org/article/africanity-vs-blackness-race-class-and-culture-brazil

https://youtu.be/1hrtU1MtwGE (Abosompem: Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (African) Ancestral Polytheism)

https://youtu.be/LNZopEKRbz8 (Ancestral Religion IS Spirituality: Etymology of Religion and Spirit)

https://youtu.be/yADUlEgJaH8(Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (African) Worldview: Proper Definitions of Afrocentric, African-centered)

 

Yoruba Are 99.9% Genetically Identical To Igbos, Akan And Gaa-Adangbe ~ Study

yoruba-traditional-wedding-muyiwa-osifuye

Photo courtesy of Yoruba Traditional Wedding Fine Art Print~ Muyiwa Osifuye

Genetic research finds that there is little genetic difference between most African ethnic groups and less so when they are closer together. A study published in the Bio Medical Center found there was little evidence for significant population substructure in the four major West African ethnic groups, the Yoruba and Igbo of Nigeria and Akan and Gaa-Adangbe of Ghana.

The findings, according to the team, “although not entirely surprising given the geographical proximity of these groups, provide important insights into the genetic relationships between the ethnic groups studied and confirm previous results that showed close genetic relationship between most studied West African groups.”

The study was conducted by Adebowale Adeyemo, Guanjie Chen2, Yuanxiu Chen and Charles Rotimi of the University of Ibadan, National Human Genome Center and Howard university. Analysis of Molecular Variance, AMOVA was used.

Adebowale et al made the shocking discovery that whereas there was 99.9% within-population variance, the between-population variance was less than 0.1%. This means that Yorubas, Igbos, Gaa and Akan are 99.9% similar as populations, while within each of the groups there are differences/variations between individuals as high as 99%, i.e. One Igbo may be 99% variant to another Igbo, or one Yoruba to another Yoruba.

“The within-population component of genetic variation accounts for most of the diversity in the sample.”

Previous studies had similarly found such differences that existed within ethnic populations, rather than between them. “This is consistent with previous findings [5] showing that the within-population component of genetic variance among six African populations studied was 96.9%; we estimated an even higher value of 99.9% in this study.”

A similar finding is with races where it has now been found that within whites or within blacks there are more variances than between the races which are next to identical with differences only being skin deep.

“The higher value of the within-population variance in this study is likely due to the smaller geographic area from which the samples were derived. The maximum distance between any two sites in this study is less than 700 miles and there are no major natural barriers e.g., mountains, between the regions inhabited by the groups.”

The researchers explained that a long history of trade, marriage and other interactions as these groups were not tribal, lead to the thorough mixing of genetic pool.

“In addition, these four ethnic groups have a long history of trade and other interactions and they all speak languages belonging to the Niger-Kordofanian group. As noted by Cavalli-Sforza et al [18] the genetic relationships observed in West Africa indicate that major migrations and admixtures occurred within the region in earlier times It is important to point out that despite the small amount of genetic differentiation in the sample as a whole, it was possible to distinguish between the groups from each country using a hierarchical AMOVA model and a dendrogram algorithm.

Though finding that “Pair-wise genetic distances between the four ethnic groups were also very similar,” the 2005 study found that the individual populations could be distinguished, most especially those from Ghana from those from Nigeria.

“Thus, the absence of significant population structure between the four groups did not mean that the groups could not be distinguished from each other. Rather, the data in Table 4 shows that enough differences exist to separate the two populations from Nigeria from those from Ghana.”

“Classification of individuals into clusters showed symmetry, with roughly the same proportion of each ethnic group assigned to each cluster(s). Ethnicity apparently did not introduce differential allele frequencies that may affect analysis and interpretation of linkage and association studies.”

The African Genome Variation Project

Yoruba, Igbo, Akan and Gaa all have similar HG ancestry, various studies have found. Purple in image below from The African Genome Variation Project, Nature 2015

There is a lot of Cameroonian ancestry in Igbos, while both Igbo and Yoruba often have Benin ancestry with more in Yorubas.

Same ‘Volta-Niger,’ and ‘YEAI’ Language Roots Of Yoruba And Igbo

The image below shows also that Yoruba and Igbo ethnic groups have the same language root, the YEAI root.

12321364_10207759170571085_2877601028121596024_n

http://newsrescue.com/yoruba-are-99-adangbe-study/#axzz44ncatrOe (Yoruba Are 99.9% Genetically Identical To Igbos, Akan And Gaa-Adangbe, by NEWSRESCUE NOVEMBER 20, 2015 )

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1471-2156-6-38 (Genetic structure in four West African population groups, first online: 24 June 2005)

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v517/n7534/full/nature13997.html (The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa, published online 03 December 2014)

 

All Non-Africans are Neanderthals

 12805811_10207408146635706_3007607403914582456_n

It’s actually an insult to the Monkeys/Apes to compare these Caucasians/Eurasians ‘Mutant Savages’ whatever you want to call them other than not (“Human” i.e. Afrikan) to these Primate species. But these Non-African species does resemble them a great deal alot, as I continue to come across these type of photos in my research and find this out.

This is why I don’t have a problem with calling them my word I coined for myself sometime ago “Artificial Humans.” These same species ‘Eurasians’ (Europe/Asia; i.e. EurAsia or Caucasians i.e. Caucasus Mountains/Caves) have been proven to have “Neanderthal ancestry” so that right there speaks for itself.

Neanderthal Findings

“Because Neanderthals lived in a land of abundant limestone caves, which preserve bones well, and where there has been a long history of prehistoric research, they are better known than any other archaic human group. Consequently, they have become the archetypal “cavemen.” The name Neanderthal (or Neandertal) derives from the Neander Valley near Düsseldorf, Germany, where quarrymen unearthed portions of a human skeleton from a cave in 1856.”

http://www.britannica.com/topic/Neanderthal#ref866133

“A team of scientists comparing the full genomes of the two species concluded that most Europeans and Asians have between 1 to 4 percent Neanderthal DNA. Indigenous sub-Saharan Africans have no Neanderthal DNA because their ancestors did not migrate through Eurasia.”

https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/neanderthal/

“Remnants of Neanderthal DNA in modern humans are associated with genes affecting type 2 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, lupus, biliary cirrhosis, and smoking behavior. They also concentrate in genes that influence skin and hair characteristics. At the same time, Neanderthal DNA is conspicuously low in regions of the X chromosome and testes-specific genes.”

“The team showed that the areas with reduced Neanderthal ancestry tend to cluster in two parts of our genomes: genes that are most active in the male germline (the testes) and genes on the X chromosome. This pattern has been linked in many animals to a phenomenon known as hybrid infertility, where the offspring of a male from one subspecies and a female from another have low or no fertility.”

The team also measured how Neanderthal DNA present in human genomes today affects keratin production and disease risk.

“Neanderthal ancestry is increased in genes affecting keratin filaments. This fibrous protein lends toughness to skin, hair, and nails and can be beneficial in colder environments by providing thicker insulation, said Reich. “It’s tempting to think that Neanderthals were already adapted to the non-African environment and provided this genetic benefit to humans,” he speculated.

The researchers also showed that nine previously identified human genetic variants known to be associated with specific traits likely came from Neanderthals. These variants affect diseases related to immune function and also some behaviors, such as the ability to stop smoking. The team expects that more variants will be found to have Neanderthal origins.”

http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2014/01/neanderthals-dna-legacy-linked-to-modern-ailments/(January 29, 2014)

Possible African Origin of Y-Chromosome R1*-M173

“The greatest diversity of haplogroup R is found in Africa not Asia (see Figure 1). The distribution of haplogroup R in Africa increases moving from east to west.The Eurasian form of haplogroup R, include R1a(SRY1532) and R1b (M269). Haplogroup R1-M173 isancestral to R-P25 (xM269) and other Eurasian downstream lineages. In Asia the frequency of haplotype M173 is as follows: Anatolia 0.19%, Iran 2.67%, Iraq0.49% Oman 1.0%, Pakistan 0.57% and Oman 1.0%(Abu-Amero et al , 2009). This contrast sharply with the widespread distribution of R1*-M173 in Africa, that ranges between 7-95% and averages 39% (Coia et al ,2005); but no trace of Eurasiatic maternal lineages in West Central Africa.”

http://www.academia.edu/1898548/Possible_African_Origin_of_Y-Chromosome_R1_-M173

Some additional information:

The Neanderthal DNA inherited by modern Europeans and Asians has wide-ranging clinical consequences, from mental illness to blood disorders and skin disease, according to a genetic analysis of health records.

Between 1.5 and 4 per cent of the genome of today’s Eurasians — but not Africans — comes from the Neanderthals with whom our ancestors interbred about 50,000 years ago.”

http://on.ft.com/1Quvfud (Neanderthal DNA linked to disease in humans)

 

I also would like to point out as well, we as Afrikan people need to stop trying to compare ourselves to these “Artificial Humans.” (Non-Afrikan people). Because we’re not them and they’re not us. That has been proven not only in science that we’re different from Non-Afrikan people, but through nature itself we’re different from Non-Afrikans.

https://youtu.be/PyHp0G4LELU (Su ne Anim: Race and Identity in Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (African) Cosmology)

https://youtu.be/51fQt8KNKvE (ONIPA: The Creation of the Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (African) Human Being)

Definition

Troglodyte~ a cave dweller or brutal character.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/troglodyte

12391876_10206955881649364_3521756147782205961_n

Note: I also would like to point out there’s nothing ‘Prehistoric’ about Non-African people too as dictionary.com points out in one of the ‘troglodyte’ definitions. They would have had to actually be living on this planet far more longer in order to be called anything ‘Pre’ meaning first or original, the only people who can lay claim to that is us as Afrikan people ‘the first people’ on this earth and truly the only indigenous people of this earth everywhere we migrated to outside of Afrika.

Neanderthal (adj.) Look up Neanderthal at Dictionary.com
1861, in reference to a type of extinct hominid, from German Neanderthal “Neander Valley,” name of a gorge near Düsseldorf where humanoid fossils were identified in 1856. The place name is from the Graecized form of Joachim Neumann (literally “new man,” Greek *neo-ander), 1650-1680, German pastor, poet and hymn-writer, who made this a favorite spot in the 1670s. Adopting a classical form of one’s surname was a common practice among educated Germans in this era. As a noun, by 1915; as a type of a big, brutish, stupid person from 1926.


http://etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=Neanderthal

http://www.donsmaps.com/neanderthaloriginal.html(The original Neanderthal skeleton from the Neander Valley)

http://news.discovery.com/human/genetics-neanderthal-110718.htm (All Non-Africans Part Neanderthal, Genetics Confirm, JUL 18,
2011)

At least 20% of Neanderthal DNA Is in Humanshttps://shar.es/1Cz7rn

https://youtu.be/14Gk4hZppbo (All Non Africans Today Are Part Neanderthal)

https://youtu.be/g98I7nSutko (Black People Are The Only 100% PURE HUMANS)

https://youtu.be/W8ZTp-gs-Ok (When Neanderthals and Modern Humans Meet)

My Yoruba Occurrences & Experiences

 

yoruba-people1Photo courtesy of buzznigeria.com

Updated Post: June 13, 2017

There’s an article that I came across yesterday that lists one of it’s subtitles (The ancestors of Yoruba people provided the largest contribution of genes from Africa to modern Americans) that I will touch on some more about as I finish briefly sharing my “Yoruba” story with y’all that relates to the article. This article (The ancestors of Yoruba people provided the largest contribution of genes from Africa to modern Americans) came out over a year ago, despite I just came across this article yesterday so I decided to share the information with y’all, because it was intriguing too me but than again I wasn’t surprise by the (Yoruba) Ancestresses and Ancestors findings in North America.

Now that I’ve pointed that out, years ago the (Yoruba) ethnic group was the first Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (Africa) ethnic group that I became attracted and spiritually connected to as I was trying to find out more about the Yoruba people, language, “IFA religion” and culture. It also would be a coincidence that my fiancé of 2 years now would be Yoruba too, which was something I could not foresee occurring. LOL !

Which strongly convinces me with this new information I learn about the Yoruba people yesterday, that it is possible that my Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (Africa) Ancestresses or Ancestors were of Yoruba descent. But at some point though I will know for sure as I take my African ancestry DNA test (at a later time). I will come back and post an updated post and share with y’all what my results was. I think my Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (Africa) Ancestresses and Ancestors are trying to tell me something. 🙂

Lastly then there was my first name Kolonta, pronounced Ko-lon-ta which is West Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (African), as I found out some time before and that my name means something in Liberia, but the meaning escapes me now because it has been years ago since I came across the meaning and I can’t put my hands on the information now. But sometime ago, I was told my first name Kolonta by a guy who was Yoruba I once talk too. That my name is also Yoruba and the meanings he gave me were interesting and intriguing and tickle me some I might add too.

Here are some meanings of my name Kolonta in Yoruba as follow:

In Yoruba, a word can mean 5 or more things, it depends on how you pronounce it.

Kolonta~ she has no sales
Kolonta~she didn’t go out
Kolonta~ no wares to sell
Kolonta~ kolonta’ no bullet
ko~no
ko~carry
Kolonta~carry to sell

* Ko-lon-ta (Kolonta) is pronounced in Yoruba just like I pronounce it and how my late Maternal grandmother who name me pronounced it as well; and how it should be pronounced correctly. Which consist of three syllables Ko-lon-ta (Kolonta) but it is spelled differently in Yoruba though.

Most people like to use the reference or misnomer “African Slave trade.”

* Most people like to use the reference or misnomer “African Slave trade.” However African people did not participate in the trading or enslaving of their people, this was strictly and exclusively a European/Eurasian (Europe/Asia) business in the exploitation and trading of African people to other Non-African people for profit and property.

Notes:

Did We Sell Each Other Into Slavery: Misconceptions About the African Involvement in the Slave Trade

There are many misconceptions about African history and nowhere is this more true than the topic of the slave trade. Very often I see comments by people who argue that Africans sold each other into slavery. There is some element of truth to this, but to speak of the slave trade solely as Africans selling each other t is a gross oversimplification of what was a complex historical event. This also seems to be an attempt to shift the burden of the slave trade on the victims of that very trade. In How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Walter Rodney mentions how the white author of a book on the slave trade admitted that he was encouraged by other scholars to blame the slave trade solely on the Africans. This narrative helps to lessen European guilt by making Africans seem just as or even more guilty of being involved in the slave trade. This piece is not an attempt to ignore the African role in the slave trade or to absolve those that were involved, but to to provide a more complete picture of the African involvement in slave trade.

In the first place, the Portuguese initiated what eventually became the Trans-Atlantic slave trade mainly through slave raids along the coasts of Africa. The first of these raids came in 1444 and was led by Lançarote de Freitas. The problem with raiding for slaves was that it was extremely dangerous. For instance, the slave trader Nuno Tristão was killed during an ambush. Slave raiding proved to be an extremely dangerous way to obtain slaves, but buying slaves was much safer and took less effort on the part of the Europeans. Therefore, the first phase of the slave trade began not with a trade, but with a series of raids. This point is especially important because although the slave trade was on some levels based on a partnership between European buyers and African traders, the slave trade did not begin as such.

Moreover, the partnership between the traders and buyers was an uneasy one. The European slave traders often betrayed those who supplied them with slaves. A famous case of this was the African slave trader Daaga who was tricked and captured by slave traders. He was taken to Trinidad where he would eventually lead a mutiny. Another example is given by Anne Bailey in her book African Voices in the Atlantic Slave Trade. She mentions the story of Chief Ndorkutsu who had been providing captives to the European traders. Eventually some of the Ndorkutsu’s own relatives were tricked into boarding a slave ship and then taken as slaves to Cuba. In some cases, such as that of Madam Tinubu in Nigeria and Afonso of the Kongo Kingdom, those Africans that initially gave African captives to the Europeans came to resist the slave trade. Tinubu had a change of heart when she realized how inhumanely the slaves were treated. Afonso was almost assassinated by the Portuguese after he demanded an end to the slave trade in his kingdom.

Typically wars in West Africa were relatively short affairs that left a small number of causalities. The introduction of European weapons made these wars more drawn out and destructive affairs. Moreover, the only way Africans could acquire these firearms was through the trade of slaves. A king of Dahomey once requested that Europeans establish a firearms factory in his nation, but this request went ignored. Firearms became necessary for African nations to defend themselves both from African rivals as well as from European intrusion, but the only way to acquire these weapons was through the slave trade. This situation only benefited the competing European powers that were able to play Africans against each other.

Finally, the slave trade left a negative legacy on both sides of the Atlantic. The Africans that were brought to the Americas were forced to labor as slaves, while enduring some of the most inhumane treatment imaginable. Those who remained, however, were left to mourn the lost of their friends and relatives that were taken away. A handful of African traders and rulers may have gained some wealth from the slave trade, but overall it was a very negative event for Africa. There were African kingdoms, such as the Kongo Kingdom, that eventually fell due to the onslaught brought about by the slave trade. We often think of the negative impact that the slave trade had on those who were captured, but the slave trade was also devastating for those who escaped being captured as well.

Some Africans did play a role in the slave trade and the trade could not have been as large as it was without cooperation from Africans. With that being said, I think many people who have not properly studied the slave trade have a tendency to overstate how involved Africans were in a misguided attempt to shift the blame of the slave trade on Africans. ~Dwayne Wong (Omowale), May 3, 2016

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dwayne-wong-omowale/myths-and-misconceptions_1_b_9637798.html

Some Excerpts from the book “How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Walter Rodney ” and chapter 4.1 (The European Slave Trade as a Basic Factor in African
Underdevelopment)

To discuss trade between Africans and Europeans in the four centuries
before colonial rule is virtually to discuss slave trade. Strictly speaking,
the African only became a slave when he reached a society where he
worked as a slave. Before that, he was first a free man and then a
captive. Nevertheless, it is acceptable to talk about the trade in slaves to
refer to the shipment of captives from Africa to various other parts of
the world where they were to live and work as the property of
Europeans. The title of this section is deliberately chosen to call
attention to the fact that the shipments were all by Europeans to markets
controlled by Europeans, and this was in the interest of European
capitalism and nothing else. In East Africa and the Sudan, many

Africans were taken by Arabs and were sold to Arab buyers. This is
known (in European books) as the ‘Arab Slave Trade’. Therefore, let it
be clear that when Europeans shipped Africans to European buyers it
was the ‘European Slave trade’ from Africa.

Undoubtedly, with few exceptions such as Hawkins, European buyers
purchased African captives on the coasts of Africa and the transaction
between themselves and Africans was a form of trade. It is also true that
very often a captive was sold and resold as he made his way from the
interior to the port of embarkation — and that too was form of trade.
However, on the whole, the process by which captives were obtained on
African soil was not trade at all. It was through warfare, trickery,
banditry and kidnapping. When one tries to measure the effect of
European slave trading on the African continent, it is very essential to
realise that one is measuring the effect of social violence rather than
trade in any normal sense of the word. 

Many things remain uncertain about the slave trade and its
consequences for Africa, but the general picture of destructiveness is
clear, and that destructiveness can be shown to be the logical
consequence of the manner of recruitment of captives in Africa. One of
the uncertainties concerns the basic question of how many Africans
were imported. This has long been an object of speculation, with
estimates ranging from a few millions to over one hundred million. A
recent study has suggested a figure of about ten million Africans landed
alive in the Americas, the Atlantic islands and Europe. Because it is a
low figure, it is already being used by European scholars who are 

apologists for the capitalist system and its long record of brutality in
Europe and abroad. In order to white-wash the European slave trade,
they find it convenient to start by minimising the numbers concerned.
The truth is that any figure of Africans imported into the Americas
which is narrowly based on the surviving records is bound to be low,
because there were so many people at the time who had a vested
interest in smuggling slaves (and withholding data). Nevertheless, if the
low figure of ten million was accepted as a basis for evaluating the
impact of slaving on Africa as a whole, the conclusions that could
legitimately be drawn would confound those who attempt to make light
of the experience of the rape of Africans from 1445 to 1870.

On any basic figure of Africans landed alive in the Americas, one
would have to make several extensions — starting with a calculation to
cover mortality in transhipment. The Atlantic crossing or ‘Middle
Passage’, as it was called by European slavers, was notorious for the
number of deaths incurred, averaging in the vicinity of 15% to 20%.
There were also numerous deaths in Africa between time of capture and
time of embarkation, especially in cases where captives had to travel
hundreds of miles to the coast. Most important of all (given that warfare
was the principal means of obtaining captives) it is necessary to make
some estimate as to the number of people killed and injured so as to
extract the millions who were taken alive and sound. The resultant
figure would be many times the millions landed alive outside of Africa,
and it is that figure which represents the number of Africans directly
removed from the population and labour force of Africa because of the
establishment of slave production by Europeans.

The slave trade on the Indian Ocean has been called the ‘East African slave trade’ and the ‘Arab slave trade’ for so long that it hides the extent to which it was
also a European slave trade. When the slave trade from East Africa was
at its height in the 18th century and in the early 19th century, the
destination of most captives was the European-owned plantation
economies of Mauritius, Réunion and Seychelles-as well as the
Americas, via the Jape of Good Hope. Resides, Africans labouring as

slaves in certain Arab countries in the 18th and 19th centuries were all
ultimately serving the European capitalist system which set up a
demand for slave-grown products, such as the cloves grown —
Zanzibar under the supervision of Arab masters.

Many African rulers acquiesced in the European slave trade for what they
considered to be reasons of self-interest, but on no scale of rationality
could the outflow of population be measured as being anything but
disastrous for African societies.

African economic activity was affected both directly and indirectly by
population loss. For instance, when the inhabitants of a given area were
reduced below a certain number in an environment where tsetse fly was
present, the remaining few had to abandon the area.

In effect, enslavement was causing these people to lose their battle to tame and
harness nature — a battle which is at the basis of development.
Violence also meant insecurity. The opportunity presented by European
slave dealers became the major (though not the only) stimulus for a
great deal of social violence between different African communities and
within any given community. It took the form more of raiding and
kidnapping than of regular warfare, and that fact increased the element
of fear and uncertainty. 

Both openly and by implication, all the European powers n the 19th
century indicated their awareness of the fact that the activities
connected with producing captives were inconsistent with other
economic pursuits. That was the time when Britain in particular wanted
Africans to collect palm produce and rubber and to grow agricultural
crops for export in place of slaves; and it was clear that slave-raiding
was violently conflicting with that objective in Western, Eastern and
Central Africa. Long before that date, Europeans accepted that fact
when their self-interest was involved. For example, in the 17th century,
the Portuguese and Dutch actually discouraged slave trade on the ‘Gold
Coast’ for they recognised that it could be incompatible with gold trade.
However, by the end of that century, gold had been discovered in
Brazil, and the importance of gold supplies from Africa was lessened.
Within the total Atlantic pattern, African slaves became more important
than gold, and Brazilian gold was offered for African captives at
Whydah (Dahomey) and Accra. At that point, slaving began undermining the ‘Gold Coast’ economy and destroying the gold trade. Slave-raiding and kidnapping made it unsafe to mine and to travel with gold; and raiding for captives proved more profitable than gold-mining.

One European on the scene noted that ‘as one fortunate marauding
makes a native rich in a day, they therefore exert themselves rather in
war, robbery and plunder than in their old business of digging and
collecting gold’.

The above changeover from gold-mining to slave-raiding took place
within a period of a few years between 1700 and 1710, when the ‘Gold
Coast’ came to supply about 5,000 to 6,000 captives per year. By the
end of the 18th century, a much smaller number of captives were
exported from the ‘Go1d Coast’, but the damage had already been done.
It is worth noting that Europeans sought out different parts of West and
Central Africa at different times to play the role of major suppliers of
slaves to the Americas. This meant that virtually every section of the
long western coastline between the Senegal and Cunene rivers had at
least a few years experience of intensive trade in slaves — with all its
consequences. Besides, in the history of Eastern Nigeria, the Congo,
Northern Angola and Dahomey, there were periods extending over
decades when exports remained at an average of many thousands per
year. Most of those areas were also relatively highly developed within
the African context. They were lead rig forces inside Africa, whose
energies would otherwise have gone towards their own selfimprovement
and the betterment of the continent as a whole.

The changeover to warlike activities and kidnapping must have affected
all branches of economic activity, and agriculture in particular.
Occasionally, in certain localities food production was increased to provide supplies for slave ships, but the overall consequence of slaving on agricultural activities in Western, Eastern and Central Africa were negative. Labour was drawn off from agriculture and conditions became unsettled. Dahomey, which in the 16th century was known for exporting food to parts of what is now Togo, was suffering from famines in the 19th century.

The present generation of Africans will readily recall that in the colonial period when able-bodied men left their homes as migrant labourers that upset the farming routine in the home districts and often caused famines. Slave trading after all, meant migration of labour in a manner one hundred times more brutal and
disruptive.

One tactic that is now being employed by certain European (including
American) scholars is to say that the European slave trade was
undoubtedly a moral evil, but it was economically good for Africa.
Here attention will be drawn only very briefly to a few of those
arguments to indicate how ridiculous they can be. One that receives
much emphasis that African rulers and other persons obtained Europe
commodities in exchange for their captives, and this was how Africans
gained ‘wealth’. This suggestion fails to take into account the fact that
several European imports were competing with and strangling African
products; it fails to take into account the fact that none of the long list of
European articles were of the type which entered into the productive
process, but were rather items to be rapidly consumed or stowed away
uselessly; and it incredibly overlooks the fact that the majority of the
imports were of the worst quality even as consumer goods — cheap gin,
cheap gunpowder, pots and kettles full of holes, beads, and other assorted rubbish.

Following from the above, it is suggested that certain African kingdoms
grew strong economically and politically a consequence of the trade
with Europeans. The greatest of the West African kingdoms, such as
Oyo, Benin, Dahomey and Asante are cited as examples. Oyo and
Benin were great, before making contact with Europeans, and while
both Dahomey and Asante grew stronger during the period of the
European slave trade, the roots of their achievements went back to
much earlier years. Furthermore — and this is a major fallacy in the
argument of the slave trade apologists — the fact that a given African
state grew politically more powerful at the same time as it engaged in
selling captives to Europeans is not automatically to be attributed to the
credit of the trade in slaves. A cholera epidemic may kill thousands in a
country and yet the population increases. The increase obviously came
about in spite of and not because of the cholera. This simple logic
escapes those who speak about the European slave trade benefitting
Africa. The destructive tendency of slave trading can be clearly
established; and, wherever a state seemingly progressed in the epoch of
slave trading, the conclusion is simply that it did so in spite of the
adverse effects of a process that was more damaging than cholera. This
is the picture that emerges from a detailed study of Dahomey, for
instance, and in the final analysis although Dahomey did its best to
expand politically and militarily while still tied to slave trade, that form
of economic activity seriously undermined its economic base and left it
much worse off.

But, perhaps a slightly more subtle version of the same argument
requires a reply: namely, the argument that Africa gained because in the
process of slave trading new food crops were acquired from the
American continent and these became staples in Africa. The crops in
question are maize and cassava, which became staples in Africa late in
the 19th century and in the present century. But the spread of food crops
is one of the most common phenomena in human history. Most crops
originated in only one of the continents, and then social contact caused
their transfer to other parts of the world. Trading in slaves has no
special bearing on whether crops spread-the simplest forms of trade
would have achieved the same result. Today, the Italians have (hard)
wheat foods like spaghetti and macaroni as their staple, while most
Europeans use the potato. The Italians took the idea of the spaghetti
type foods from the Chinese noodle after Marco Polo returned from
travels there, while Europe adopted the potato from American Indians.
In neither case were Europeans enslaved before they could receive a
benefit that was the logical heritage of all mankind, but Africans are to
be told that the European slave trade developed us by bringing us maize
and cassava.

All of the above points are taken from books and articles published
recently, as the fruit of research in major British and American
Universities. They are probably not the commonest views even among

European bourgeois scholars, but they are representative of a growing
trend that seems likely to become the new accepted orthodoxy in
metropolitan capitalist countries; and this significantly coincides with
Europe’s struggle against the further decolonization of Africa
economically and mentally. In one sense, it is preferable to ignore such
rubbish and isolate our youth from its insults; but unfortunately one of
the aspects of current African underdevelopment is that the capitalist
publishers and bourgeois scholars dominate the scene and help mould
opinions the world over. It is for that reason that writing of the type
which justifies the trade in slaves has to be exposed as racist bourgeois
propaganda, having no connection with reality or logic. It is a question
not merely of history but of present day liberation struggle in Africa.

http://abahlali.org/files/3295358-walter-rodney.pdf (How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Walter Rodney)

 

Now some excerpts from the article entitled:

America IS a melting pot: Scientists map genetic fingerprint of colonisation in the US – and reveal ‘surprising’ complexity

By ELLIE ZOLFAGHARIFARD FOR

DAILYMAIL.COM

March 24, 2015

The ancestors of current-day Yoruba people from West Africa – which is one of the largest African ethnic groups – provided the largest contribution of genes from Africa to all current-day American populations.

‘We can see the huge genetic impact that the slave trade had on American populations and our data match historical records’, said study author Dr Garrett Hellenthal from the UCL Genetics Institute,

‘The majority of African Americans have ancestry similar to the Yoruba people in West Africa, confirming that most African slaves came from this region.

‘In areas of the Americas historically under Spanish rule, populations also have ancestry related to what is now Senegal and Gambia. Records show that around a third of the slaves sent to Spanish America in the 17th Century came from this region, and we can see the genetic evidence of this in modern Americans really clearly.’

Researchers also found that the proportion of African ancestry varied across the continent, from virtually zero in the Maya people from Mexico to 87 per cent in current-day Barbados.

‘The differences in European ancestry between the Caribbean islands and mainland American population that we found were also previously unknown.

‘It is likely that these differences reflect different patterns of migration between the Caribbean and mainland America.

‘These results show just how powerful a genetic approach can be when it comes to uncovering hidden patterns of ancestry,’ added Professor Capelli.

05A163700000044D-3009647-The_ancestors_of_current_day_Yoruba_people_left_from_West_Africa-m-28_1427218422265

Photo courtesy of Paul Almasy/CORBIS & dailymail.co.uk

photo of a young Yoruba woman.

Some additional information:

Caribbean populations show a higher African component than Southern American ones, consistent with historical records that documented a larger number of slaves in the Caribbean Islands 22, 23.

In all groups, the Yorubans from West Africa are the largest contributor, confirming this region as the major component of African slaves1, 2, 4. However, our fine-scale analysis suggests additional genetic contributions from populations from other parts of Africa, with contributions from particular groups sampled in Senegambia (the Mandenka), Southern (South African Bantu language speakers) and Eastern Africa (Kenyan Bantu language speakers) identified in 6 out of 12 populations we investigated. Historical reports indicate that Senegambia and South-Eastern Africa contributed an average of 6 and 4% of all disembarked slaves to the Americas (totalling several hundreds of thousands individuals), respectively, with ethnic groups from Senegal and Mozambique being among the 10 most prominent according to slavery documentation22. In addition, more than 30% of the total slaves arriving in mainland Spanish America up to the 1630s came from Senegambia23, and we accordingly find that the relative contribution from the Mandenka is higher in all areas historically under the Spanish rule (Fig. 4).

“The team, which also included researchers from UCL (University College London) and the Universita’ del Sacro Cuore of Rome, analyzed more than 4,000 previously collected DNA samples from 64 different populations, covering multiple locations in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Since migration has generally flowed from Africa and Europe to the Americas over the last few hundred years, the team compared the ‘donor’ African and European populations with ‘recipient’ American populations to track where the ancestors of current-day North and South Americans came from.

‘We found that the genetic profile of Americans is much more complex than previously thought,’ said study leader Professor Cristian Capelli from the Department of Zoology at Oxford University.”

“There is an African proverb “when two brothers fight a stranger reaps the harvest’ The Kiriji Wars of the Yoruba were in a nutshell wars againsts invaders, which spiralled into wars between brothers. They are said to have lasted almost a whole century. The effects of those wars are not widely known or perhaps have never been quantified . But here is one glaring pointer.”

The Yoruba people of Western Nigeria are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.

“The Yoruba people of Western Nigeria approximately 35 million people occupying the south-western parts of Nigeria. While their primary concentration is in Nigeria, they are also found in other West African countries and throughout the entire world as well. They constitute what could be described as the largest concentration of Africans who live and work in the Diaspora and their descendants are spread all over the world.”

“Numbering about 35 million in total, the Yoruba is one of the largest ethnic groups south of the Sahara Desert. They constitute about 21% of Nigeria’s total population, making them one of the largest ethnic groups in Nigeria. Contrary to what many people believe, the Yoruba are, in fact, not a single ethnic group. In a sharp contrast, they are a collection of diverse people who are bound together by a common language, culture and history. According to the Yoruba Mythology, it is believed that they descended from an area called Odua. Uncounted numbers of Yorubas were carried to the Caribbean and the Americas during slave trade period. In 1893, the Yoruba Kingdom became part of the British Protectorate.”

Notes/Defintions:

Kamit
Afu – flesh; house; flesh of Ra/Rait
Afu Ra and Afu Rait – title of Ra, title of Rait
Kaka – high land
Ka – high land; land

Twi (Akan)
Ofi – house, home; also used for sanctuary/temple (Abosomfie)
Afo – animal carcass; flesh; that which is put on, discarded and taken up again
Afuo (Afur) – land that is fertile; farmland; plantation; land with vibrant energy moving through it
fura – to put on
afra – to become intermixed; comingled
fram – to be on fire, to burn, blaze; flame, fire; Afram and Afra (Afura and Afurait)
Koko – hill, mountain; high land
Kua – farm (fertile land)

Afurakani – African; male individual of the land of the Creator (Afuraka)

Afuraitkaitnit – African; female individual of the land of the Creatress (Afuraitkait)

Pronunciation key: (note: The name of the Creatress, Rait is also spelled Rat)

Afuraka (Ah’-foo rah-kah’)

Afuraitkait (Ah’-foo rah’-ette kah’-ette) also Afuratkat (Ah’-foo raht-kaht’)

Afurakanu (Ah’-foo rah-kah’ noo)

Afuraitkaitnut (Ah’-foo rah’-ette kah’-ette noot) also

Afuratkatnut (Ah’-foo raht-kaht’ noot)

Afurakani (Ah’-foo rah-kah’ nee)

Afuraitkaitnit (Ah’-foo rah’-ette kah’-ette neet) also

Afuratkatnit (Ah’-foo raht-kaht’ neet)

Finally, it must be clearly understood that only Black people are and can be referred to as Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut and Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit.

Our identity is rooted in our biology, our biological/physical and spiritual connection to the original Ka/Kait, our spiritual connection to Afu Ra and Afu Rait as well as our reincarnation through specific blood-circles. This distinguishes us from all other groups. Black people, wherever we are found in the world are Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut.

The Ntoro (Ntr/God) Ra is the Creator of the Universe, while the Ntorot (Ntrt/Goddess) Rait is the Creatress of the Universe. Ra uses the Aten (Sun) as a physical transmitter of His spiritual energy. This is why He is often misnomered the ‘Sun God’. However, Ra and Rait actually created the Aten (Sun).

Ra is the name of the God Who is the Creator of the World. Rait is the name of the Goddess Who is the Creatress of the World. Ra and Rait are Two Halves of a Whole. Two sides of One coin. That Whole, that coin, is the Great Spirit of the Supreme Being. Ra/Rait, together, are the Great Spirit Who brought into being all of Creation. They are the Divine Living Energy moving throughout all that exists. Just as solar energy and heat move throughout the Earth, the atmosphere of Earth, throughout your body, throughout the bodies of plants, animals, minerals, so does the Great Spirit, Ra/Rait, move throughout, animate, give life to, the planets, Sun, Moon, stars, plants, animals, humans, the Black Substance of Space—all that exists. Fundamentally, the Supreme Being’s Creative Spirit, Creative Power, is Who we call Ra and Rait.

http://odwirafo.com/KUKUU-TUNTUM_The_Ancestral_Jurisdiction_Nhoma.pdf(KUKUU-TUNTUM The Ancestral Jurisdiction) by ODWIRAFO KWESI RA NEHEM PTAH AKHAN (page 8)

www.odwirafo.com/Tua-Ra_torah.pdf (NOTE ON ‘TUA RA’ BEING THE ORIGIN OF THE TERM ‘TORAH’) by ODWIRAFO KWESI RA NEHEM PTAH AKHAN (page 2)

https://youtu.be/51fQt8KNKvE (ONIPA: The Creation of the Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (African) Human Being)

https://youtu.be/ZaZX04SPfKI (NTORO: Origin and Meaning of the Term ‘NTR’ (Deity) Defined in Ancient Kamit and Akan Culture)

 


http://dailym.ai/1EEvWLq (The complex ancestry of Americans revealed)

http://theyoruba.com/2016/04/02/yorubas-the-largest-contributors-to-the-slave-trade-2/

https://oloolutof.wordpress.com/2012/09/01/ikeji-warriors-ijesaekitiparapo-army-and-kiriji-war-triumph/(IKEJI WARRIORS, IJESA/EKITIPARAPO ARMY AND KIRIJI WAR TRIUMPH, by OLOOLUTOF SEPTEMBER 1, 2012)

http://buzznigeria.com/yoruba-people/ (Dec 12, 2013)

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150324/ncomms7596/full/ncomms7596.html (Unravelling the hidden ancestry of American admixed populations, Received November 21, 2014 and Published 24 March 24, 2015)

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150324132224.htm (University of Oxford, March 24, 2015)

https://youtu.be/2i_spMsJa0E(AFURAKA/AFURAITKAIT – The Origin of the term ‘Africa’)

http://odwirafo.com/AFURAKA-AFURAITKAIT_The_Origin_of_the_Term_Africa.pdf(AFURAKA/AFURAITKAIT THE ORIGIN OF THE TERM ‘AFRICA’) by ODWIRAFO KWESI RA NEHEM PTAH AKHAN (Pages 10 & 13)

Don’t be Fooled by Hillary Clinton Black America

Black Girls Rock! 2016 - Show

NEWARK, NEW JERSEY – APRIL 01: Former Secretary of State and candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 election Hillary Clinton speaks onstage during BET Black Girls Rock! 2016 at New Jersey Performing Arts Center on April 1, 2016 in Newark, New Jersey. (Photo by Gilbert Carrasquillo/FilmMagic)

For the record I’ve never watched “Black Girls Rock” and have only watch clips of it via Youtube or else where during the past over time, and I am not really admire of the show either much at all due to it’s hypocritical and contradicting behavior of the Black females that they choose to honor in most cases. (As the show “Black Girls Rock” suppose to represent positive images and or role models and empowerment for Black Girls and Women, but some of the “honorees” they choose to select does not represent that). However I always find it interesting and a disappointment and a shame why we as Black people and in this case Black women felt the need to invite “Hillary Clinton” to something that does not represent her and that is not about her. This woman doesn’t care anything about Black women and Black people in general, her husband Bill Clinton and former President didn’t either. We really need to stop following for the hype and BS as Black people. “Hillary Clinton” only made this appearance to get your vote for President so she can win, she wasn’t genuine about what she said during the show regarding the Black women she admire in her speech, just like all “Cave people” are not genuine majority of the time when they speak of Black people in a positive way. They only do it for their advantage and agendas. Black people still haven’t learn yet when we’re being played and use by these “Cave people” i.e. Artificial Humans, for their own benefit and agendas that ultimately leaves us out to hang in the end.

“The Democratic presidential candidate said black women are “change makers and pathmakers and ground shakers.” She said her life has been changed by strong black women leaders, including Marian Wright Edelman, the president and founder of the Children’s Defense Fund, the late poet and author Maya Angelou and the late civil rights activist Dorothy Height.

Clinton introduced a video honoring Beverly Bond, the founder of Black Girls Rock.”

“There are still a lot of barriers holding back African Americans and black women in particular, so a gathering like this filled with so many powerful, strong women is a rebuke to every single one of those barriers,” Clinton said. “All of our kids, no matter what zip code they live in, deserve a good teacher and a good school, a safe community and clean water to drink.”

Note: Hillary Clinton, African and Black women are one in the same. So it wasn’t necessary for you say to African Americans and then turn around and say Black women like some how they’re different from the two. Unless you’re using it interchangeably.

“Not impressed by her speech was Rihanna and Erykah Badu. According Bloomberg Politics correspondent Jennifer Epstein, the opinionated queens were not feeling Hillary’s campaigning. At All.”
-Bossip

“If anyone doubts that the mainstream media fails to tell the truth about our political system (and its true winners and losers), the spectacle of large majorities of black folks supporting Hillary Clinton in the primary races ought to be proof enough. I can’t believe Hillary would be coasting into the primaries with her current margin of black support if most people knew how much damage the Clintons have done – the millions of families that were destroyed the last time they were in the White House thanks to their boastful embrace of the mass incarceration machine and their total capitulation to the right-wing narrative on race, crime, welfare and taxes. There’s so much more to say on this topic and it’s a shame that more people aren’t saying it. I think it’s time we have that conversation.”~Michelle Alexander

11535906_10205793941481586_1097383644815588037_n (1)

1933807_10207553121019975_1597947510531570749_n

A still photo shot from the 1985 movie “The Color Purple” (The character Miss Millie, actress Dana Ivey)

LOL ! Yup ! Just because a Non-Afrikan person (people) does something good for a Black person (people) doesn’t mean they genuinely care about you or love you. Especially when they’re doing it for their own agendas. When more Black people learn this we’ll be better off as a people. Ase’ !

“Most white people hate Black people. The reason that most white people hate Black people is because whites are not Black people. If you know this about white people, you need to know little else. If you do not know this about white people, virtually all else that you know about them will only confuse you.”~The Isis Papers, Dr. Frances Cress Welsing (book)

The Rise And Fall Of Jim Crow (Democratic Party) by Richard Wormser

The Democratic Party was formed in 1792, when supporters of Thomas Jefferson began using the name Republicans, or Jeffersonian Republicans, to emphasize its anti-aristocratic policies. It adopted its present name during the Presidency of Andrew Jackson in the 1830s. In the 1840s and ’50s, the party was in conflict over extending slavery to the Western territories. Southern Democrats insisted on protecting slavery in all the territories while many Northern Democrats resisted.

The party split over the slavery issue in 1860 at its presidential convention in Charleston, South Carolina. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas as their candidate, and Southern Democrats adopted a pro-slavery platform and nominated John C. Breckinridge in an election campaign that would be won by Abraham Lincoln and the newly formed Republican Party.

After the Civil War, most white Southerners opposed Radical Reconstruction and the Republican Party’s support of black civil and political rights. The Democratic Party identified itself as the “white man’s party” and demonized the Republican Party as being “Negro dominated,” even though whites were in control. Determined to re-capture the South, Southern Democrats “redeemed” state after state–sometimes peacefully, other times by fraud and violence. By 1877, when Reconstruction was officially over, the Democratic Party controlled every Southern state.

The South remained a one-party region until the Civil Rights movement began in the 1960s. Northern Democrats, most of whom had prejudicial attitudes towards blacks, offered no challenge to the discriminatory policies of the Southern Democrats.

One of the consequences of the Democratic victories in the South was that many Southern Congressmen and Senators were almost automatically re-elected every election. Due to the importance of seniority in the U.S. Congress, Southerners were able to control most of the committees in both houses of Congress and kill any civil rights legislation. Even though Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a Democrat, and a relatively liberal president during the 1930s and ’40s, he rarely challenged the powerfully entrenched Southern bloc. When the House passed a federal anti-lynching bill several times in the 1930s, Southern senators filibustered it to death.

Southern Democrats (Dixiecrat) & The KKK History Together

Lyndon B. Johnson was one of these racists Southern Democrats (Dixiecrat) who behind close doors made it be known he didn’t care nothing about African American people, and express his true feelings about how he really felt about African Americans, when the cameras and microphones wasn’t on him.

The Following racists quote by Lyndon B. Johnson can be found in the “book ‘Inside the White House,’ by Ronald Kessler.”

“These Negroes, they’re getting pretty uppity these days and that’s a problem for us since they’ve got something now they never had before, the political pull to back up their uppityness. Now we’ve got to do something about this, we’ve got to give them a little something , just enough to quiet them down, not enough to make a difference.”~Lyndon B. Johnson

What might be a surprise and shock for some (many) African Americans to learn is that not only was the Democratic Party was a “white man’s” political party, but the Democratic Party also has ties with the establishment and founding of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).

The Ku Klux Klan was founded and formed as a Social club by Confederate Army veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee in the winter of 1865-66. The group took on the name Ku Klux Klan, with the Greek word “kyklos,” meaning circle or cycle, and the English word clan, but with the letter K being used instead of the letter c. As they dressed up in robes, hoods, or white sheets to hide their identity from the Federal troops and others, and to use it as a method to scare black people. They eventually became a terrorist organization throughout the South with the help of the Democratic Party as they promote their White Supremacy agenda. Between 1869-71, their goal was to destroy the Congressional Reconstruction by murdering black people, and some white people who were either active in the Republican Party, or educating black children. The Klan would go onto burn churches, crosses, schools, murdering of black men and families, and drove and scare thousands of people from their homes. Due to local law enforcement officials unwillingness to stop the Klan.

Congress passed the “Force Bill” in 1871 giving the federal government authority to prosecute the Klan, some prosecutors won convictions to break up some Klan activity. Although some Klan members went unpunished, but it did slow down some of the activity (crimes) due to the federal law. By the mid-1920s the Ku Klux Klan had grown to 2 million members throughout the United States, the movie by D.W. Griffith, “The Birth Of A Nation,” was use as a method to attract more white people to the Ku Klux Klan, and to denigrate Black people and murder. Many state public officials were members of the KKK throughout the United States, by 1944 the Ku Klux Klan had lost many members, but during the Civil Rights era of the 1960s it revived itself, and still continues today throughout America with their White Supremacy philosophy and Christian theology.

* More details about the “Force bill” in 1871 at this link here.

http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/history/force-bill.html

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_org_democratic.html

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_org_kkk.html

“Although it’s a small town of about 7,800, Pulaski, Tenn. may well be the white supremacist epicenter of the nation-at least if the number of rallies held there by bigoted groups is any indication.”

“The annual European Heritage Festival, the event despite its name, has the heavy footprint of the Klan all over it. Sponsors include the Christian Revival Center led by long-time Arkansas Klan leader Thom Robb; the Knights Party USA (better known by its original name of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan).”

http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-files/groups/knights-of-the-ku-klux-klan

Some history on who the “Dixiecrats/Democrats” were and who today most people would know them as “Republicans/GOP of the North and South of the United States of America.”

President Franklin Roosevelt electoral body in 1945 had included conservatives and liberals, northern and southern Democrats and Republicans. However, by 1948, the civil rights issue revealed the real philosophical differences between northern and southern Democrats. The move of Southern states from solidly Democrat to solidly Republican began to place. The States’ Rights Democratic Party, which became to be known as the Dixiecrats. Their campaign slogan was “Segregation Forever!” Their platform also included “states’ rights” to freedom from governmental interference in an individual’s or organization’s prerogative to do business with whomever they wanted.

New York Moderate Nelson Rockefeller defeated in the presidential primary election marked the beginning of the end of the moderates and liberals in the Republican Party. Clearer political and ideological lines began to be drawn between the Democrat and Republican parties as moderates and liberals converted from Republican to Democrat. Conservatives in the Democratic Party began to move to the increasingly conservative Republican Party.

On July 17th 1948, in Birmingham, Alabama the Dixiecrats nominated South Carolina governor Storm Thurmond as presidential candidate, and nominated Fielding L. Wright Mississippi governor for vice-presidential candidate. The party platform represented the openly racist views of most white southerners of the time. It opposed abolition of the poll tax while endorsing segregation and the “racial integrity” of each race. In the November election, Thurmond carried the states of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. However, Thurmond & Wright did not win the election, but they received well over 1.2 million popular votes and 39 electoral votes. In 1954, Thurmond was elected as a Democratic Senator, Thurmond joined with other conservative Democrats and used filibuster and other political strategies to oppose the civil rights legislation.

Thurmond was re-elected in 1956 and 1960. In 1964 Thurmond led a number of conservative southern national and state elected officials to switch from Democratic to the Republican Party. Thurmond who was a Republican now continue to be re-elected over the years until he reached the age of 94 in 1996 as he finish out his final term and as he died in December 2003.

Notes:

The Washington State Klan during the 1920s was part of the second of three waves of KKK activity in America. The second KKK was founded in 1915 and gained significant membership immediately following World War I. Though short-lived, it was a powerful anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic, anti-radical, white supremacist organization that promoted “100 percent Americanism.”  The second KKK claimed over 4 million members across the country; briefly dominated state legislatures of Colorado, Indiana, and Oregon; and in 1924 shaped presidential politics and helped pressure politicians to pass the most severe immigration restriction in the history of the United States. Following immigration restriction and a series of leadership scandals, the second KKK collapsed and was largely moribund by 1928.

The Washington State KKK during the 1920s was founded by organizers from Oregon, which had one of the strongest Klan chapters in the country at the time. The State Klan organized a series of massive public rallies in 1923 and 1924 that ranged from 20,000 to 70,000 people. While they publicly disavowed violence, Klan members participated in violent intimidation campaigns against labor activists and Japanese farmers in Yakima Valley and probably elsewhere. They put forward a ballot initiative in 1924 to prohibit Catholic schools that voters soundly defeated. And though most of the State’s Klan chapters collapsed in rancor following the defeat of their anti-private school initiative, a strong presence persisted in Whatcom and Skagit Counties throughout the 1930s. In the 1930s, some prominent leaders in the region’s KKK went on to become involved in the facist Silver Legion, or “Silvershirts,” a national movement that, while small, was quite active in Washington State. And there is evidence that the Klan in Bellingham helped pioneer intimidation practices that paved the way for anti-communist witch-hunts in the 1940s.

28u

Photo courtesy of the Washington State Historical Society

Ku Klux Klan Gathering, Crystal Pool (2nd and Lenora) in Downtown Seattle, WA. March 23, 1923.

Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the United States Of America, who was a Republican by the way is known, as the President who freed African people from slavery, or known as the “Great Emancipator.” Was and is completely untrue about him.

According to the following quotes by Abraham Lincoln.

This speech and quote was taken and during the “Fourth Debate” on September 18, 1858, in Charleston, Illinois, before he was even President of the United States, this is what he had to say about black people.

“I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races, [applause]that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality.”~Abraham Lincoln

I will say, that I do agree with him on the intermarrying of black people not marrying white people. That’s one thing I will concur with him on.

This letter and quote was in his early stage of his Presidency, just a few months before the inauguration.

In a letter written to Alexander Stephen, on December 22, 1860, soon to become Vice-President of the Confederacy, “Do the people of the South really entertain fears that a Republican administration would, directly or indirectly, interfere with the slave, or with them, about the slaves ? If they do, I wish to assure you, as once a friend, and still, I hope, not an enemy, that there is no more danger in this respect than it was in the days of Washington.”

http://www.nps.gov/liho/historyculture/debate4.htm

Source: The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia. by Mark E. Neely Jr. 1982, New York: Da Capo Press, Inc.

Dirty Little Secrets: About Black History, Its Heroes, And Other Troublemakers, Claud Anderson, Ed.D. (p. 168)

Note: Lincoln “Emancipation Proclamation” on January 1, 1863, spoke of freeing enslaved Africans in the deep south, but he ignored other enslaved African people who were enslaved in the border states over which Lincoln did have authority. (“Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, ( except the Parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St James Ascension, Assumption, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the City of New Orleans) Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, (except the forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Ann, and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth [)], and which excepted parts, are for the present, left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued.”)

http://www.nps.gov/ncro/anti/emancipation.html

Dirty Little Secrets: About Black History, Its Heroes, And Other Troublemakers, Claud Anderson, Ed.D. (book), p. 168

Thomas Woodrow Wilson 28th President of the United States Of America, (Democrat)and the “Great Deceiver” of African Americans to get them to vote for him, which they ultimately did help put him in the White House due to the fact because black people bought into the notion that he would pass laws to help them. Like so many other white Presidents before him and after him President Wilson was no different.

The following deceiving quotes by Woodrow Wilson, during his Presidential campaign and promises to sway African Americans to vote for him.

“Wished to see justice done to the colored people in every matter; and not mere grudging justice, but justice with liberality and cordial good feelings.”

“I want to assure Negroes that should I become President of the United States, they may count on me for absolute fair dealing, for everything by which I could assist in advancing the interest of their race in the United States.”

As Wilson won the election for President due to the votes of many African Americans voting for him. These racists proposed laws begin, such as segregation on public carriers, in hotels, other work places, and total exclusion of blacks from the military and federal jobs. All these laws were eventually approved by Wilson. These new racists laws lead many African Americans to migrate from the South to larger cities in the North. Also in offices held traditionally by many black people who were hired, the jobs were given to “deserving white Democrats.”

Dirty Little Secrets: About Black History, Its Heroes, And Other Troublemakers, (book)(p. 143 & 144)

Note: Early on in American History there were many African Americans, who were Republicans, because the Republican Party of today is not the same Republican Party, it was 100 plus years or so ago or even as of recently as of 50-60 years ago. Because the methods of the Republican Party today, political agenda has change completely in the last 100 plus years, and even in the last 50-60 years. This is why it’s easy for many African Americans and other African people from around the world, who lives in the United States simply vote Democratic. Because many African Americans and other African people aren’t aware of the Political history of the Democratic party and the Republican party in the United States of America and what both of these political parties once represented, which they do not represent today.

Notes:

The Electoral College was drafted by the Framers at the Constitutional Convention in 1787, and was to protect slavery. The delegates chosen to elect the president were called an assembly of “demigods” by Thomas Jefferson. This law was created because of chattel slavery. James Madison, thought “The right of suffrage was much more diffusive in the Northern than the Southern States; and the latter could have no influence in the election on the score of Negroes.”

In 2004, Gary L. Gregg, wrote in National Review Online, “It’s the electoral college that keeps the values of traditional America relevant in the 21st century and the electoral college that helps rural America balance the immense cultural, economic, and social power of urban centers.”

“The Electoral College is not apportioned by the number of voters; it is based on the size of each states representation in Congress. Under the three-fifths compromise law, slave states got to increase their representation by three-fifths of the number of slaves in that state.”

“Yes, slavery is gone today. But the Electoral College still serves as a system to protect the new “slave owners” and their “more humane” forms of servitude: low-wage, unorganized labor.”

“The slave states of yesterday have been replaced by the so-called Right-to-Work-for-less states of today.”

I also want to add that the “Electoral College” vote is what determines who will become President of the United Stats Of America. So keep that in mind people.

http://www.stewartsynopsis.com/electoral_college.htm

http://truth-out.org/news/item/12452-the-electoral-college-another-front-in-the-war-against-labor#.UJctotTtECl.email

More details about the “three-fifths compromise and slavery.” In the following links here.

http://www.usconstitution.net/xconst_A1Sec2.html

http://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/60/slave-trade

http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/three-fifths-compromise#.UJc1QUJestg.email

Now as I have pointed out here in this post the history of the Democratic Party, let this be a lesson for those of you (many) especially as it relates to African Americans who wasn’t aware of this disturbing history before. To be sure from now own that, before you decide to head to the voting booth to vote for your candidate of choice and political affiliation and when it comes to the different proposals on the ballot. That you’re aware of what you’re voting for and to be (as much as possible) aware of the history of these political parties. Because as I have pointed out and shown, when it comes to the history of the Democratic party this party hasn’t been very loyal or dedicated and has been racists towards African American people. Unfortunately for many African Americans we continue to be the most avid and loyal supporters of the Democratic Party, without knowing their past legacy and treatment of African Americans.

But be as it may these things have there consequences when it comes to people (especially as it relates to black people), voting for someone or something, base on irrelevant issues, whether it be because someone is black, half black and looks black, or in the way or matter how they speak when during a debate or speech, or how they family looks and etc. These are all the wrong reasons for voting for someone or something instead of looking at their candidate of choice politics and their behavior as a candidate that ultimately leads to how they may appear as the President in office.

Oregon’s exclusion laws aimed to prevent blacks from settling here

There were three such laws. Incredibly, the third of these was written into Oregon’s 1857 Constitution, where it remained until 1926.

The first exclusion law, sometimes referred to as “Peter Burnett’s lash law,’’ was enacted by Oregon’s provisional government in 1844. It provided that a free black who refused to leave would be subject to as many as thirty-nine lashes. The law was promoted by Burnett, a Missouri settler who headed the provisional government’s legislative council, and later became California’s first governor.

It’s doubtful this law was ever enforced. Deemed overly harsh, it was amended later that same year to substitute a forced labor punishment, still a severe penalty, and was entirely repealed in 1845 after human rights-minded Jesse Applegate succeeded Burnett on the council.

The second law, enacted by the Territorial Legislature in 1849, was a flat prohibition against blacks coming to Oregon. At least one African American, Jacob Vanderpool, was expelled in 1851.Three others were targeted, including Abner Francis, who wrote about Oregon’s racial attitudes for abolitionist Frederick Douglass’s newspaper. Francis and the others were allowed to stay, and the law was repealed in 1854.

The third law was written into Oregon’s 1857 Constitution. It was approved overwhelmingly by Oregon voters — all white males — at an election in which the Constitution was also approved. Oregon thus became the only free state admitted into the union with an exclusion clause already in its Constitution, although exclusion laws did exist elsewhere.

The clause, which became Section 35 of the Bill of Rights, read:

No free negro or mulatto not residing in this state at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall come, reside or be within this state or hold any real estate, or make any contracts, or maintain any suit therein; and the legislative assembly shall provide by penal laws for the removal by public officers of all such negroes and mulattoes, and for their effectual exclusion from the state, and for the punishment of persons who shall bring them into the state, or employ or harbor them.

Note the word “free.’’ It was a qualification that would have allowed African American slaves, had voters approved a companion clause legalizing slavery. No, that’s not a misprint: Oregon voters cast ballots at the same 1857 election on whether to also authorize slavery, although they decisively voted it down.

In 1860, Oregon’s black population was just 128 in a total population of 52,465.

Evidence that the exclusion clauses deterred black settlers is not hard to find. At least two free African Americans, George Bush in 1844 and George Washington in 1850, settled north of the Columbia River in present-day Washington where the exclusion laws, then in effect, were less of a threat. Both men became major landholders. George Bush farmed a large acreage south of Olympia in what is today known as Bush Prairie. George Washington is regarded as the founder of Centralia.

When voters finally removed the exclusion clause from Oregon’s Constitution in 1926 — a previous attempt in 1900 had failed — The Oregonian of Nov. 3, 1926, reported the repeal in a single paragraph, saying the clause was “objectionable and obsolete.’’

Peter Burnett, who as governor of California, failed to win enactment of an exclusion clause in that state, lamely explained in later years why he favored banning African Americans. He said that after years of subjugation as slaves, he hadn’t thought it possible for blacks to achieve anything positive in their lives. “Had I foreseen the civil war, and the changes it has produced, I would not have supported such a measure but at the time I did not suppose such changes could be brought about.’’

http://depts.washington.edu/civilr/kkk_intro.htm

http://s.oregonlive.com/qfV6KmC

http://gizmodo.com/oregon-was-founded-as-a-racist-utopia-1539567040

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1751.html

http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/States’+Rights+Party

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/biographys.hom/lbj_bio.asp

* (This information was originally taken from my blog knowledgefullcircle.wordpress.com, and posted on November 5, 2012)

” I’ll have those niggers voting Democratic for the next 200 years.”~Former President Lyndon B. Johnson to two governors on Air Force One

Well he was right, because black people are still voting up to this day Democratic without knowing the past history of this political party that was Pro-Slavery and the political party and founders of the KKK. So, the joke was definitely on us the whole time which makes us look like the fools for sure. That’s not to say to vote Republican or that they’re any better. I am just stating document evidence and facts that is history.

The Republicans and Democrats are one in the same. Both Political Parties just use their agendas differently to get their messages across and to get people to vote for them. Think about it ?

Note: Former 36th President Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-1969, was a Congress man, Senator, and Vice President to John F. Kennedy 1961-1963 before he was assassinated.

http://apne.ws/1RDkXsL (Clinton makes surprise appearance at ‘Black Girls Rock’)

http://kissdetroit.hellobeautiful.com/3790042/hillary-clinton-makes-surprise-appearance-at-black-girls-rock/

http://townhall.com/news/entertainment/2016/04/02/rihanna-shonda-rhimes-clinton-appear-at-black-girls-rock-n2142293 (Rihanna, Shonda Rhimes, Clinton appear at Black Girls Rock!)

http://hot97svg.com/2016/04/02/erykah-badu-rihanna-were-not-pleased-with-hillary-clintons-appearance-at-black-girls-rock/ (Erykah Badu & Rihanna Were Not Pleased With Hillary Clinton’s Appearance At Black Girls Rock!)

http://www.theamericanmirror.com/black-women-rip-hillarys-surprise-appearance-at-black-girls-rock-show/ (Black women rip Hillary’s ‘surprise’ appearance at ‘Black Girls Rock’ show)

http://readersupportednews.org/opinion2/277-75/34904-focus-if-the-black-community-knew-the-history-of-the-clintons-policies-hillary-would-lose-black-support (by Michelle Alexander, Reader Supported News January 30, 2016)

https://youtu.be/5uWu0nSsg7w (Hillary Clinton in Black History)

https://www.facebook.com/ajplusenglish/videos/696407333834110/ (A closer look at Hillary Clinton’s war record)

https://medium.com/@SamariaRice/why-i-have-not-endorsed-any-candidate-f315f9b5e4e1#.dsxamfz85(Why I Have Not Endorsed Any Candidate by Samaria Rice, Mar 15. 2016 )

https://informedvote2016.wordpress.com/2016/03/18/do-i-really-need-to-worry-about-hillarys-emails-yes-she-will-be-indicted-full-form/ (Do I Really Need to Worry About Hillary’s Emails? Yes. She Should Be Indicted. (Full Form), March 18, 2016)

http://www.c-span.org/video/?406228-4%2Fwashington-journal-joseph-digenova-hillary-clintons-emails (Investigation Into Hillary Clinton’s Emails, MARCH 18, 2016)

http://mm4a.org/1Zmq1H5 (Law Professor Explains Why Hillary Clinton “Won’t Be Indicted And Shouldn’t Be” Over Her Email Server, March 21, 2016)

http://www.politico.com/blogs/2016-dem-primary-live-updates-and-results/2016/03/milwaukee-journal-sentinel-criticizes-hillary-clinton-221390 (Wisconsin’s largest paper blasts Clinton on transparency, 3/30/16)

http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/06/politics/bill-clinton-crime-prisons-hillary-clinton/index.html (Bill Clinton concedes role in mass incarceration, May 7, 2015)

http://thegrio.com/2015/05/07/bill-clinton-mass-incarceration/ (Sorry Bill Clinton: The effects of your drug, prison policies need more than a ‘my bad’, by David A. Love, May 7, 2015)

https://shar.es/1YQoBz (With 1 in Every 10 Black Males Under 30 in Prison, We Need More Than Apologies from Bill Clinton by David Love, July 16, 2015)