For the record I’ve never watched “Black Girls Rock” and have only watch clips of it via Youtube or else where during the past over time, and I am not really admire of the show either much at all due to it’s hypocritical and contradicting behavior of the Black females that they choose to honor in most cases. (As the show “Black Girls Rock” suppose to represent positive images and or role models and empowerment for Black Girls and Women, but some of the “honorees” they choose to select does not represent that). However I always find it interesting and a disappointment and a shame why we as Black people and in this case Black women felt the need to invite “Hillary Clinton” to something that does not represent her and that is not about her. This woman doesn’t care anything about Black women and Black people in general, her husband Bill Clinton and former President didn’t either. We really need to stop following for the hype and BS as Black people. “Hillary Clinton” only made this appearance to get your vote for President so she can win, she wasn’t genuine about what she said during the show regarding the Black women she admire in her speech, just like all “Cave people” are not genuine majority of the time when they speak of Black people in a positive way. They only do it for their advantage and agendas. Black people still haven’t learn yet when we’re being played and use by these “Cave people” i.e. Artificial Humans, for their own benefit and agendas that ultimately leaves us out to hang in the end.
“The Democratic presidential candidate said black women are “change makers and pathmakers and ground shakers.” She said her life has been changed by strong black women leaders, including Marian Wright Edelman, the president and founder of the Children’s Defense Fund, the late poet and author Maya Angelou and the late civil rights activist Dorothy Height.
Clinton introduced a video honoring Beverly Bond, the founder of Black Girls Rock.”
“There are still a lot of barriers holding back African Americans and black women in particular, so a gathering like this filled with so many powerful, strong women is a rebuke to every single one of those barriers,” Clinton said. “All of our kids, no matter what zip code they live in, deserve a good teacher and a good school, a safe community and clean water to drink.”
Note: Hillary Clinton, African and Black women are one in the same. So it wasn’t necessary for you say to African Americans and then turn around and say Black women like some how they’re different from the two. Unless you’re using it interchangeably.
“Not impressed by her speech was Rihanna and Erykah Badu. According Bloomberg Politics correspondent Jennifer Epstein, the opinionated queens were not feeling Hillary’s campaigning. At All.”
“If anyone doubts that the mainstream media fails to tell the truth about our political system (and its true winners and losers), the spectacle of large majorities of black folks supporting Hillary Clinton in the primary races ought to be proof enough. I can’t believe Hillary would be coasting into the primaries with her current margin of black support if most people knew how much damage the Clintons have done – the millions of families that were destroyed the last time they were in the White House thanks to their boastful embrace of the mass incarceration machine and their total capitulation to the right-wing narrative on race, crime, welfare and taxes. There’s so much more to say on this topic and it’s a shame that more people aren’t saying it. I think it’s time we have that conversation.”~Michelle Alexander
A still photo shot from the 1985 movie “The Color Purple” (The character Miss Millie, actress Dana Ivey)
LOL ! Yup ! Just because a Non-Afrikan person (people) does something good for a Black person (people) doesn’t mean they genuinely care about you or love you. Especially when they’re doing it for their own agendas. When more Black people learn this we’ll be better off as a people. Ase’ !
“Most white people hate Black people. The reason that most white people hate Black people is because whites are not Black people. If you know this about white people, you need to know little else. If you do not know this about white people, virtually all else that you know about them will only confuse you.”~The Isis Papers, Dr. Frances Cress Welsing (book)
The Rise And Fall Of Jim Crow (Democratic Party) by Richard Wormser
The Democratic Party was formed in 1792, when supporters of Thomas Jefferson began using the name Republicans, or Jeffersonian Republicans, to emphasize its anti-aristocratic policies. It adopted its present name during the Presidency of Andrew Jackson in the 1830s. In the 1840s and ’50s, the party was in conflict over extending slavery to the Western territories. Southern Democrats insisted on protecting slavery in all the territories while many Northern Democrats resisted.
The party split over the slavery issue in 1860 at its presidential convention in Charleston, South Carolina. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas as their candidate, and Southern Democrats adopted a pro-slavery platform and nominated John C. Breckinridge in an election campaign that would be won by Abraham Lincoln and the newly formed Republican Party.
After the Civil War, most white Southerners opposed Radical Reconstruction and the Republican Party’s support of black civil and political rights. The Democratic Party identified itself as the “white man’s party” and demonized the Republican Party as being “Negro dominated,” even though whites were in control. Determined to re-capture the South, Southern Democrats “redeemed” state after state–sometimes peacefully, other times by fraud and violence. By 1877, when Reconstruction was officially over, the Democratic Party controlled every Southern state.
The South remained a one-party region until the Civil Rights movement began in the 1960s. Northern Democrats, most of whom had prejudicial attitudes towards blacks, offered no challenge to the discriminatory policies of the Southern Democrats.
One of the consequences of the Democratic victories in the South was that many Southern Congressmen and Senators were almost automatically re-elected every election. Due to the importance of seniority in the U.S. Congress, Southerners were able to control most of the committees in both houses of Congress and kill any civil rights legislation. Even though Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a Democrat, and a relatively liberal president during the 1930s and ’40s, he rarely challenged the powerfully entrenched Southern bloc. When the House passed a federal anti-lynching bill several times in the 1930s, Southern senators filibustered it to death.
Southern Democrats (Dixiecrat) & The KKK History Together
Lyndon B. Johnson was one of these racists Southern Democrats (Dixiecrat) who behind close doors made it be known he didn’t care nothing about African American people, and express his true feelings about how he really felt about African Americans, when the cameras and microphones wasn’t on him.
The Following racists quote by Lyndon B. Johnson can be found in the “book ‘Inside the White House,’ by Ronald Kessler.”
“These Negroes, they’re getting pretty uppity these days and that’s a problem for us since they’ve got something now they never had before, the political pull to back up their uppityness. Now we’ve got to do something about this, we’ve got to give them a little something , just enough to quiet them down, not enough to make a difference.”~Lyndon B. Johnson
What might be a surprise and shock for some (many) African Americans to learn is that not only was the Democratic Party was a “white man’s” political party, but the Democratic Party also has ties with the establishment and founding of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).
The Ku Klux Klan was founded and formed as a Social club by Confederate Army veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee in the winter of 1865-66. The group took on the name Ku Klux Klan, with the Greek word “kyklos,” meaning circle or cycle, and the English word clan, but with the letter K being used instead of the letter c. As they dressed up in robes, hoods, or white sheets to hide their identity from the Federal troops and others, and to use it as a method to scare black people. They eventually became a terrorist organization throughout the South with the help of the Democratic Party as they promote their White Supremacy agenda. Between 1869-71, their goal was to destroy the Congressional Reconstruction by murdering black people, and some white people who were either active in the Republican Party, or educating black children. The Klan would go onto burn churches, crosses, schools, murdering of black men and families, and drove and scare thousands of people from their homes. Due to local law enforcement officials unwillingness to stop the Klan.
Congress passed the “Force Bill” in 1871 giving the federal government authority to prosecute the Klan, some prosecutors won convictions to break up some Klan activity. Although some Klan members went unpunished, but it did slow down some of the activity (crimes) due to the federal law. By the mid-1920s the Ku Klux Klan had grown to 2 million members throughout the United States, the movie by D.W. Griffith, “The Birth Of A Nation,” was use as a method to attract more white people to the Ku Klux Klan, and to denigrate Black people and murder. Many state public officials were members of the KKK throughout the United States, by 1944 the Ku Klux Klan had lost many members, but during the Civil Rights era of the 1960s it revived itself, and still continues today throughout America with their White Supremacy philosophy and Christian theology.
* More details about the “Force bill” in 1871 at this link here.
“Although it’s a small town of about 7,800, Pulaski, Tenn. may well be the white supremacist epicenter of the nation-at least if the number of rallies held there by bigoted groups is any indication.”
“The annual European Heritage Festival, the event despite its name, has the heavy footprint of the Klan all over it. Sponsors include the Christian Revival Center led by long-time Arkansas Klan leader Thom Robb; the Knights Party USA (better known by its original name of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan).”
Some history on who the “Dixiecrats/Democrats” were and who today most people would know them as “Republicans/GOP of the North and South of the United States of America.”
President Franklin Roosevelt electoral body in 1945 had included conservatives and liberals, northern and southern Democrats and Republicans. However, by 1948, the civil rights issue revealed the real philosophical differences between northern and southern Democrats. The move of Southern states from solidly Democrat to solidly Republican began to place. The States’ Rights Democratic Party, which became to be known as the Dixiecrats. Their campaign slogan was “Segregation Forever!” Their platform also included “states’ rights” to freedom from governmental interference in an individual’s or organization’s prerogative to do business with whomever they wanted.
New York Moderate Nelson Rockefeller defeated in the presidential primary election marked the beginning of the end of the moderates and liberals in the Republican Party. Clearer political and ideological lines began to be drawn between the Democrat and Republican parties as moderates and liberals converted from Republican to Democrat. Conservatives in the Democratic Party began to move to the increasingly conservative Republican Party.
On July 17th 1948, in Birmingham, Alabama the Dixiecrats nominated South Carolina governor Storm Thurmond as presidential candidate, and nominated Fielding L. Wright Mississippi governor for vice-presidential candidate. The party platform represented the openly racist views of most white southerners of the time. It opposed abolition of the poll tax while endorsing segregation and the “racial integrity” of each race. In the November election, Thurmond carried the states of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. However, Thurmond & Wright did not win the election, but they received well over 1.2 million popular votes and 39 electoral votes. In 1954, Thurmond was elected as a Democratic Senator, Thurmond joined with other conservative Democrats and used filibuster and other political strategies to oppose the civil rights legislation.
Thurmond was re-elected in 1956 and 1960. In 1964 Thurmond led a number of conservative southern national and state elected officials to switch from Democratic to the Republican Party. Thurmond who was a Republican now continue to be re-elected over the years until he reached the age of 94 in 1996 as he finish out his final term and as he died in December 2003.
The Washington State Klan during the 1920s was part of the second of three waves of KKK activity in America. The second KKK was founded in 1915 and gained significant membership immediately following World War I. Though short-lived, it was a powerful anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic, anti-radical, white supremacist organization that promoted “100 percent Americanism.” The second KKK claimed over 4 million members across the country; briefly dominated state legislatures of Colorado, Indiana, and Oregon; and in 1924 shaped presidential politics and helped pressure politicians to pass the most severe immigration restriction in the history of the United States. Following immigration restriction and a series of leadership scandals, the second KKK collapsed and was largely moribund by 1928.
The Washington State KKK during the 1920s was founded by organizers from Oregon, which had one of the strongest Klan chapters in the country at the time. The State Klan organized a series of massive public rallies in 1923 and 1924 that ranged from 20,000 to 70,000 people. While they publicly disavowed violence, Klan members participated in violent intimidation campaigns against labor activists and Japanese farmers in Yakima Valley and probably elsewhere. They put forward a ballot initiative in 1924 to prohibit Catholic schools that voters soundly defeated. And though most of the State’s Klan chapters collapsed in rancor following the defeat of their anti-private school initiative, a strong presence persisted in Whatcom and Skagit Counties throughout the 1930s. In the 1930s, some prominent leaders in the region’s KKK went on to become involved in the facist Silver Legion, or “Silvershirts,” a national movement that, while small, was quite active in Washington State. And there is evidence that the Klan in Bellingham helped pioneer intimidation practices that paved the way for anti-communist witch-hunts in the 1940s.
Photo courtesy of the Washington State Historical Society
Ku Klux Klan Gathering, Crystal Pool (2nd and Lenora) in Downtown Seattle, WA. March 23, 1923.
Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the United States Of America, who was a Republican by the way is known, as the President who freed African people from slavery, or known as the “Great Emancipator.” Was and is completely untrue about him.
According to the following quotes by Abraham Lincoln.
This speech and quote was taken and during the “Fourth Debate” on September 18, 1858, in Charleston, Illinois, before he was even President of the United States, this is what he had to say about black people.
“I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races, [applause]that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality.”~Abraham Lincoln
I will say, that I do agree with him on the intermarrying of black people not marrying white people. That’s one thing I will concur with him on.
This letter and quote was in his early stage of his Presidency, just a few months before the inauguration.
In a letter written to Alexander Stephen, on December 22, 1860, soon to become Vice-President of the Confederacy, “Do the people of the South really entertain fears that a Republican administration would, directly or indirectly, interfere with the slave, or with them, about the slaves ? If they do, I wish to assure you, as once a friend, and still, I hope, not an enemy, that there is no more danger in this respect than it was in the days of Washington.”
Source: The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia. by Mark E. Neely Jr. 1982, New York: Da Capo Press, Inc.
Dirty Little Secrets: About Black History, Its Heroes, And Other Troublemakers, Claud Anderson, Ed.D. (p. 168)
Note: Lincoln “Emancipation Proclamation” on January 1, 1863, spoke of freeing enslaved Africans in the deep south, but he ignored other enslaved African people who were enslaved in the border states over which Lincoln did have authority. (“Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, ( except the Parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St James Ascension, Assumption, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the City of New Orleans) Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, (except the forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Ann, and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth [)], and which excepted parts, are for the present, left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued.”)
Dirty Little Secrets: About Black History, Its Heroes, And Other Troublemakers, Claud Anderson, Ed.D. (book), p. 168
Thomas Woodrow Wilson 28th President of the United States Of America, (Democrat)and the “Great Deceiver” of African Americans to get them to vote for him, which they ultimately did help put him in the White House due to the fact because black people bought into the notion that he would pass laws to help them. Like so many other white Presidents before him and after him President Wilson was no different.
The following deceiving quotes by Woodrow Wilson, during his Presidential campaign and promises to sway African Americans to vote for him.
“Wished to see justice done to the colored people in every matter; and not mere grudging justice, but justice with liberality and cordial good feelings.”
“I want to assure Negroes that should I become President of the United States, they may count on me for absolute fair dealing, for everything by which I could assist in advancing the interest of their race in the United States.”
As Wilson won the election for President due to the votes of many African Americans voting for him. These racists proposed laws begin, such as segregation on public carriers, in hotels, other work places, and total exclusion of blacks from the military and federal jobs. All these laws were eventually approved by Wilson. These new racists laws lead many African Americans to migrate from the South to larger cities in the North. Also in offices held traditionally by many black people who were hired, the jobs were given to “deserving white Democrats.”
Dirty Little Secrets: About Black History, Its Heroes, And Other Troublemakers, (book)(p. 143 & 144)
Note: Early on in American History there were many African Americans, who were Republicans, because the Republican Party of today is not the same Republican Party, it was 100 plus years or so ago or even as of recently as of 50-60 years ago. Because the methods of the Republican Party today, political agenda has change completely in the last 100 plus years, and even in the last 50-60 years. This is why it’s easy for many African Americans and other African people from around the world, who lives in the United States simply vote Democratic. Because many African Americans and other African people aren’t aware of the Political history of the Democratic party and the Republican party in the United States of America and what both of these political parties once represented, which they do not represent today.
The Electoral College was drafted by the Framers at the Constitutional Convention in 1787, and was to protect slavery. The delegates chosen to elect the president were called an assembly of “demigods” by Thomas Jefferson. This law was created because of chattel slavery. James Madison, thought “The right of suffrage was much more diffusive in the Northern than the Southern States; and the latter could have no influence in the election on the score of Negroes.”
In 2004, Gary L. Gregg, wrote in National Review Online, “It’s the electoral college that keeps the values of traditional America relevant in the 21st century and the electoral college that helps rural America balance the immense cultural, economic, and social power of urban centers.”
“The Electoral College is not apportioned by the number of voters; it is based on the size of each states representation in Congress. Under the three-fifths compromise law, slave states got to increase their representation by three-fifths of the number of slaves in that state.”
“Yes, slavery is gone today. But the Electoral College still serves as a system to protect the new “slave owners” and their “more humane” forms of servitude: low-wage, unorganized labor.”
“The slave states of yesterday have been replaced by the so-called Right-to-Work-for-less states of today.”
I also want to add that the “Electoral College” vote is what determines who will become President of the United Stats Of America. So keep that in mind people.
More details about the “three-fifths compromise and slavery.” In the following links here.
Now as I have pointed out here in this post the history of the Democratic Party, let this be a lesson for those of you (many) especially as it relates to African Americans who wasn’t aware of this disturbing history before. To be sure from now own that, before you decide to head to the voting booth to vote for your candidate of choice and political affiliation and when it comes to the different proposals on the ballot. That you’re aware of what you’re voting for and to be (as much as possible) aware of the history of these political parties. Because as I have pointed out and shown, when it comes to the history of the Democratic party this party hasn’t been very loyal or dedicated and has been racists towards African American people. Unfortunately for many African Americans we continue to be the most avid and loyal supporters of the Democratic Party, without knowing their past legacy and treatment of African Americans.
But be as it may these things have there consequences when it comes to people (especially as it relates to black people), voting for someone or something, base on irrelevant issues, whether it be because someone is black, half black and looks black, or in the way or matter how they speak when during a debate or speech, or how they family looks and etc. These are all the wrong reasons for voting for someone or something instead of looking at their candidate of choice politics and their behavior as a candidate that ultimately leads to how they may appear as the President in office.
Oregon’s exclusion laws aimed to prevent blacks from settling here
There were three such laws. Incredibly, the third of these was written into Oregon’s 1857 Constitution, where it remained until 1926.
The first exclusion law, sometimes referred to as “Peter Burnett’s lash law,’’ was enacted by Oregon’s provisional government in 1844. It provided that a free black who refused to leave would be subject to as many as thirty-nine lashes. The law was promoted by Burnett, a Missouri settler who headed the provisional government’s legislative council, and later became California’s first governor.
It’s doubtful this law was ever enforced. Deemed overly harsh, it was amended later that same year to substitute a forced labor punishment, still a severe penalty, and was entirely repealed in 1845 after human rights-minded Jesse Applegate succeeded Burnett on the council.
The second law, enacted by the Territorial Legislature in 1849, was a flat prohibition against blacks coming to Oregon. At least one African American, Jacob Vanderpool, was expelled in 1851.Three others were targeted, including Abner Francis, who wrote about Oregon’s racial attitudes for abolitionist Frederick Douglass’s newspaper. Francis and the others were allowed to stay, and the law was repealed in 1854.
The third law was written into Oregon’s 1857 Constitution. It was approved overwhelmingly by Oregon voters — all white males — at an election in which the Constitution was also approved. Oregon thus became the only free state admitted into the union with an exclusion clause already in its Constitution, although exclusion laws did exist elsewhere.
The clause, which became Section 35 of the Bill of Rights, read:
No free negro or mulatto not residing in this state at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall come, reside or be within this state or hold any real estate, or make any contracts, or maintain any suit therein; and the legislative assembly shall provide by penal laws for the removal by public officers of all such negroes and mulattoes, and for their effectual exclusion from the state, and for the punishment of persons who shall bring them into the state, or employ or harbor them.
Note the word “free.’’ It was a qualification that would have allowed African American slaves, had voters approved a companion clause legalizing slavery. No, that’s not a misprint: Oregon voters cast ballots at the same 1857 election on whether to also authorize slavery, although they decisively voted it down.
In 1860, Oregon’s black population was just 128 in a total population of 52,465.
Evidence that the exclusion clauses deterred black settlers is not hard to find. At least two free African Americans, George Bush in 1844 and George Washington in 1850, settled north of the Columbia River in present-day Washington where the exclusion laws, then in effect, were less of a threat. Both men became major landholders. George Bush farmed a large acreage south of Olympia in what is today known as Bush Prairie. George Washington is regarded as the founder of Centralia.
When voters finally removed the exclusion clause from Oregon’s Constitution in 1926 — a previous attempt in 1900 had failed — The Oregonian of Nov. 3, 1926, reported the repeal in a single paragraph, saying the clause was “objectionable and obsolete.’’
Peter Burnett, who as governor of California, failed to win enactment of an exclusion clause in that state, lamely explained in later years why he favored banning African Americans. He said that after years of subjugation as slaves, he hadn’t thought it possible for blacks to achieve anything positive in their lives. “Had I foreseen the civil war, and the changes it has produced, I would not have supported such a measure but at the time I did not suppose such changes could be brought about.’’
* (This information was originally taken from my blog knowledgefullcircle.wordpress.com, and posted on November 5, 2012)
” I’ll have those niggers voting Democratic for the next 200 years.”~Former President Lyndon B. Johnson to two governors on Air Force One
Well he was right, because black people are still voting up to this day Democratic without knowing the past history of this political party that was Pro-Slavery and the political party and founders of the KKK. So, the joke was definitely on us the whole time which makes us look like the fools for sure. That’s not to say to vote Republican or that they’re any better. I am just stating document evidence and facts that is history.
The Republicans and Democrats are one in the same. Both Political Parties just use their agendas differently to get their messages across and to get people to vote for them. Think about it ?
Note: Former 36th President Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-1969, was a Congress man, Senator, and Vice President to John F. Kennedy 1961-1963 before he was assassinated.
http://apne.ws/1RDkXsL (Clinton makes surprise appearance at ‘Black Girls Rock’)
http://townhall.com/news/entertainment/2016/04/02/rihanna-shonda-rhimes-clinton-appear-at-black-girls-rock-n2142293 (Rihanna, Shonda Rhimes, Clinton appear at Black Girls Rock!)
http://hot97svg.com/2016/04/02/erykah-badu-rihanna-were-not-pleased-with-hillary-clintons-appearance-at-black-girls-rock/ (Erykah Badu & Rihanna Were Not Pleased With Hillary Clinton’s Appearance At Black Girls Rock!)
http://www.theamericanmirror.com/black-women-rip-hillarys-surprise-appearance-at-black-girls-rock-show/ (Black women rip Hillary’s ‘surprise’ appearance at ‘Black Girls Rock’ show)
http://readersupportednews.org/opinion2/277-75/34904-focus-if-the-black-community-knew-the-history-of-the-clintons-policies-hillary-would-lose-black-support (by Michelle Alexander, Reader Supported News January 30, 2016)
https://youtu.be/5uWu0nSsg7w (Hillary Clinton in Black History)
https://www.facebook.com/ajplusenglish/videos/696407333834110/ (A closer look at Hillary Clinton’s war record)
https://medium.com/@SamariaRice/why-i-have-not-endorsed-any-candidate-f315f9b5e4e1#.dsxamfz85(Why I Have Not Endorsed Any Candidate by Samaria Rice, Mar 15. 2016 )
https://informedvote2016.wordpress.com/2016/03/18/do-i-really-need-to-worry-about-hillarys-emails-yes-she-will-be-indicted-full-form/ (Do I Really Need to Worry About Hillary’s Emails? Yes. She Should Be Indicted. (Full Form), March 18, 2016)
http://www.c-span.org/video/?406228-4%2Fwashington-journal-joseph-digenova-hillary-clintons-emails (Investigation Into Hillary Clinton’s Emails, MARCH 18, 2016)
http://mm4a.org/1Zmq1H5 (Law Professor Explains Why Hillary Clinton “Won’t Be Indicted And Shouldn’t Be” Over Her Email Server, March 21, 2016)
http://www.politico.com/blogs/2016-dem-primary-live-updates-and-results/2016/03/milwaukee-journal-sentinel-criticizes-hillary-clinton-221390 (Wisconsin’s largest paper blasts Clinton on transparency, 3/30/16)
http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/06/politics/bill-clinton-crime-prisons-hillary-clinton/index.html (Bill Clinton concedes role in mass incarceration, May 7, 2015)
http://thegrio.com/2015/05/07/bill-clinton-mass-incarceration/ (Sorry Bill Clinton: The effects of your drug, prison policies need more than a ‘my bad’, by David A. Love, May 7, 2015)
https://shar.es/1YQoBz (With 1 in Every 10 Black Males Under 30 in Prison, We Need More Than Apologies from Bill Clinton by David Love, July 16, 2015)